Department of State Publication 10239

Office of the Secretary
Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, Philip C. Wilcox, Jr.



Terrorism continued to menace civil society in 1994. Although international terrorism declined worldwide, there was an upsurge of attacks by Islamic extremist groups, including many aimed at undermining the Middle East peace process. The Clinton administration increased cooperative efforts with many nations to reduce the threat of terrorism.

Examples of serious acts of international terrorism in 1994 were:

Extremists opposed to the Arab-Israeli peace process dramatically increased the scale and frequency of their attacks in Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza. More than 100 civilians died in these attacks in 1994.

This pattern of terrorism in 1994 reflects a trend in recent years of a decline in attacks by secular terrorist groups and an increase in terrorist activities by radical Islamic groups. These groups are a small minority in the Islamic world, and most Islamic countries, as well as the Organization of the Islamic Conference, have condemned religious extremism and violence. Nevertheless, terrorism in Islamic guise is a problem for established governments in the Middle East and a threat to the Arab-Israeli peace process.

There have been important positive developments as well in the fight against international terrorism:

US counterterrorism policy follows three general rules: Because terrorism is a global problem, the Clinton administration is deeply engaged in cooperation with other governments in an international effort to combat terrorism: Civilized people everywhere are outraged by terrorist crimes. The scars are long lasting, and there is no recompense for victims. But terrorists are a small minority, whose crimes, deadly as they are, cannot be allowed to intimidate the forces of peace and democracy. The message to terrorists from Americans and other free people and nations is that we are strong, vigilant, and determined to defeat terrorism.

Legislative Requirements

This report is submitted in compliance with Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 2656f(a), which requires the Department of State to provide Congress a full and complete annual report on terrorism for those countries and groups meeting the criteria of Section (a)(1) and (2) of the Act. As required by legislation, the report includes detailed assessments of foreign countries where significant terrorist acts occurred and countries about which Congress was notified during the preceding five years pursuant to Section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (the so-called terrorism list countries that have repeatedly provided state support for international terrorism). In addition, the report includes all relevant information about the previous year's activities of individuals, terrorist groups, or umbrella groups under which such terrorist groups fall, known to be responsible for the kidnapping or death of any American citizen during the preceding five years, and groups known to be financed by state sponsors of terrorism.


No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. For the purposes of this report, however, we have chosen the definition of terrorism contained in Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 2656f(d). That statute contains the following definitions: The US Government has employed this definition of terrorism for statistical and analytical purposes since 1983. In a number of countries, domestic terrorism, or an active insurgency, has a greater impact on the level of political violence than does international terrorism. Although not the primary purpose of this report, we have attempted to indicate those areas where this is the case.


Adverse mention in this report of individual members of any political, social, ethnic, religious, or national group is not meant to imply that all members of that group are terrorists. Indeed, terrorists represent a small minority of dedicated, often fanatical, individuals in most such groups. It is that small group -- and their actions -- that is the subject of this report.

Furthermore, terrorist acts are part of a larger phenomenon of politically inspired violence, and at times the line between the two can become difficult to draw. To relate terrorist events to the larger context, and to give a feel for the conflicts that spawn violence, this report will discuss terrorist acts as well as other violent incidents that are not necessarily international terrorism.

Philip C. Wilcox, Jr.
Coordinator for Counterterrorism

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Monday, 8 January 1996; Corrections, 20 February 1996