(We have linked the reader directly to biographical homepages when such exist.)

CEO, Infrastructure Defense, Inc.

Deputy Secretary of Defense

Director of the Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office

Chair, President's Council on Year 2000 Conversion

SENATOR JON KYL (Republican, Arizona)


Dr. Martin Libicki is a Senior Policy Analyst at RAND (since 1998). His present field of interest is the relationship between information technology and national security.

To these ends he has written Illuminating Tomorrow's War (NDU Press, 1998), which examines aspects of the revolution in military affairs and its impact on Department of Defense requirements for integrated information. Other works include: The Mesh and the Net: Speculations on National Security in an Age of Free Silicon, which deals with military technology circa 2025; Information Technology Standards: Quest for the Common Byte (Digital Press, 1995); What is Information Warfare? (summarized in Strategic Forum No. 28 "Defending Cyberspace and Other Metaphors"); "Dominant Battlespace Knowledge and its Consequences" (a chapter in Dominant Battlespace Knowledge); and "Emerging Military Instruments" in INSS's (Institute for National Strategic Studies) Strategic Assessment 1996, and the concluding chapters of Strategic Assessment 1998. Earlier monographs include What Makes Industries Strategic and Industrial Strength Defense.

Prior employment included 12 years at the National Defense University, three years on the Navy Staff as program sponsor for industrial preparedness, and three years as a policy analyst for the Energy and Minerals Division, General Accounting Office.

Dr. Libicki received his Ph.D. from the University of California (U.C.) at Berkeley (1978) writing on industrial economics. He also received a Master's in City Planning from U.C. Berkeley (1974), and a Bachelor's degree in mathematics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1972).


James Lingerfelt joined IBM Public Safety & Justice following a distinguished 24-year career with the Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) in Washington, D.C. He joined MPD in 1973 as a Patrol Officer and subsequently served in a variety of positions, including Tactical Operations Supervisor, Director of the Office of Finance and Resource Management, and his last position, Director of the Information Services Division (ISD), where he held the rank of Inspector.


Lingerfelt has spoken and authored several articles on strategic planning and technology in law enforcement. He offers a unique, in-depth combination of law enforcement and integrated justice knowledge. Since joining IBM in 1997, Lingerfelt has provided consulting services to several police projects and assisted in the development of a strategic plan for Information Technology for the Division of Parole in a large U.S. state.

As Director of MPD ISD, he was responsible for all Information Technology (IT) requirements and operations for one of the largest police departments in the United States. He developed the Department's five-year IT strategic plan, which involved re-engineering and applying new technology to all of the department's major business processes.

As Director of the Office of Finance and Resource Management, Lingerfelt managed a $257 million budget. He reorganized the office and planned and supervised the decentralization of the MPD budget and procurement functions. He reduced the overall agency budget by more than $22 million while increasing the non-personnel services budget by $11 million, through the redirection of funds for essential equipment and technology upgrades.

As the User Liaison, CJIS (Criminal Justice Information System) Branch, Data Processing Division, he led the technical staff of the CJIS in developing system and user requirements for the automated prisoner processing system. During 17 years of patrol assignments, he also served as a patrol officer, as a squad sergeant, as a platoon lieutenant, and as Tactical Operations Supervisor (supervising patrol activities directed at illegal drug trafficking and auto theft).


Lingerfelt holds a Master of Science Degree in Business and Management from the Johns Hopkins University Police Executive Leadership Program (PELP). The program emphasizes strategic planning, organizational development, management, and leadership of criminal justice agencies. He earned the Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Information Systems from the University of Maryland and is a graduate of the FBI National Police Academy. He is a past member of the Technology Advisory Council of the National Institute of Justice.


Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan is Director, National Security Agency/Chief, Central Security Service (NSA/CSS), Fort George G. Meade, Maryland. As the Director of NSA/CSS, he is responsible for a combat support agency of the Department of Defense with military and civilian personnel stationed worldwide. He is the senior uniformed intelligence officer in the Department of Defense.

The General entered the Air Force in 1966 as a distinguished graduate of the Florida State University Reserve Officer Training Corps program. He has served as senior intelligence officer for the Air Force and in other senior staff officer positions in the Pentagon; Headquarters Tactical Air Command, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia; Electronic Security Command, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas; the Defense Intelligence Agency, Washington, D.C.; and the National Security Agency, Fort George G. Meade, Maryland. He has commanded squadrons, groups, and a major air command both in the United States and overseas. He has been the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, Headquarters U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C., and most recently the Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency.

General Minihan, a native Texan, is married to the former Barbara Gleason of Elkhorn, Wisconsin. They have three children.


1966 Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
1972 Squadron Officer School
Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama
1979 Distinguished Graduate
Master of Arts degree in National Security Affairs
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California
1979 Air Command and Staff College
Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama
1984 Distinguished graduate
Air War College
Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama
1993 Program for Senior Executives in National and International Security
Harvard University
Cambridge, Massachusetts

September 1962 - June 1966 Air Force Reserve Officer Training
Corps Program
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
June 1966 - November 1966 Student
Armed Forces Intelligence Center
Lowry Air Force Base, Colorado
November 1966 - October 1969 Intelligence Plans Officer
Headquarters Tactical Air Command
Langley Air Force Base, Virginia
October 1969 - November 1970 Target Intelligence Officer and
Commanders Briefer
Headquarters 7th Air Force
Tan Son Nhut Air Base, South Vietnam
November 1970 - September 1974 Chief
Current Intelligence and Presentations Branch
Headquarters U.S. Southern Command
Howard Air Force Base, Panama
September 1974 - July 1978 Program Element Monitor, Assistant
Executive; Assistant Chief of Staff,
and Special Assistant for External Affairs,
Headquarters U.S. Air Force
Washington, D.C.
July 1978 - December 1979 Student
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California
January 1980 - September 1981 Legislative Liaison Officer
Defense Intelligence Agency
Washington, D.C.
September 1981 - December 1982 Chief
Office of Support to Military
Operations and Plans
National Security Agency
Fort George G. Meade, Maryland
December 1982 - July 1983 Commander
6941st Electronic Security Squadron
Fort George G. Meade, Maryland
July 1983 - May 1984 Student
Air War College
Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama
May 1984 - July 1985 Commander
12th Tactical Intelligence Squadron
Bergstrom Air Force Base, Texas
July 1985 - July 1987 Commander
6917th Electronic Security Group
San Vito dei Normanni
Air Station, Italy
July 1987 - June 1989 Deputy Chief of Staff
Plans Headquarters Electronic Security Command
Kelly Air Force Base, Texas
June 1989 - July 1991 Deputy Chief of Staff,
Intelligence Headquarters Tactical Air Command
Langley Air Force Base, Virginia
July 1991 - June 1993 Director of Plans and Requirements
Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence
Headquarters U.S. Air Force
Washington, D.C.
June 1993 - October 1993 Commander
Air Force Intelligence Command, and
Director, Joint Electronic Warfare Center
Kelly Air Force Base, Texas
October 1993 - October 1994 Commander
Air Intelligence Agency, and
Director, Joint Command and Control Warfare
Kelly Air Force Base, Texas
October 1994 - September 1995 Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence
Headquarters U.S. Air Force
Washington, D.C.
September 1995 - February 1996 Director
Defense Intelligence Agency
Washington, D.C.
February 1996 - present Director
National Security Agency/
Chief, Central Security Service
Fort George G. Meade, Maryland



Second Lieutenant Apr 21, 1966 Colonel Nov 1, 1985
First Lieutenant Dec 30, 1967 Brigadier General May 1, 1991
Captain Jun 30, 1969 Major General Jun 1, 1993
Major Feb 1, 1978 Lieutenant General Sep 1, 1995
Lieutenant Colonel Oct 1, 1981



1998 Interim Dean
College of Integrated Science and Technology
James Madison University
Harrisonburg, Virginia
1992-98 Director, Department of Computer Science
James Madison University
1980-92 Professor of Computer Science
Associate Professor of Computer Science
Assistant Professor of Computer Science
James Madison University
1979 Bell Laboratories
Member of the Technical Staff


1978 University of Texas at Austin Ph.D. in Computer Science
1972 University of Houston B.A. in Philosophy


1998 Interim Dean, College of Integrated Science and Technology

The CISAT college includes 120 faculty and 2800 students spanning academic programs in information systems, information security, computer science, telecommunications, manufacturing, environment and energy, biotechnology, physician assistant, occupational therapy, dietetics, athletic training, nursing, social work, and communication disorders.

1992-1998 Director, Department of Computer Science

During this period undergraduate enrollment has grown from 150 to 500 students and graduate enrollment has grown from 30 to 80. We have developed undergraduate concentrations in information technology and data communications, we have developed undergraduate minors in health information systems and in telecommunications, and we have developed a graduate concentration in information security taught through the Internet.

1996-1998 Director, The Information Security Program

This is the first remote Internet-based curriculum at JMU and leads to the Master of Science degree in Computer Science concentrating in Information Security. This program doubled graduate enrollment in its first year and expects to double enrollment again in its second year.

1994-1996 Chair, Goals and Objectives Subcommittee, General Education Committee

This subcommittee formulated the first description of general education as learning objectives rather than as traditional distribution areas. It received over 1000 objectives from the university faculty and consolidated them into a list of about 100 objectives for the new General Education program.

1980-1992 Coordinator, Computer Science Program

The Computer Science program was initiated in 1980 in the Department of Mathematics and grew steadily through these years in number of students, size of faculty, and sophistication of its laboratories.


1998 "Report of the 1998 Annual Meeting of the National Colloquium for Information Systems Security Education." Proceedings of the 21st National Information Systems Security Conference. 5-8 October 1998.

1998 with Allain, V.; Erwin, T.D.; Halpern, L.C.; McNallie, R.; Ross, M.K. "Issues and Lessons in General Education Reform." Journal of General Education, 47:2, 1998.

1997 "Remote Electronic Professional Education is Ready for Prime Time," an invited academic keynote speech. Second Annual Desktop Collaboration Technology Conference. 7 May 1997.

1997 with John Cordani, J. Archer Harris, Ramon Mata-Toledo. "An Internet-based Masters Program in Information Security." First ACM Workshop on Education in Computer Security. 21 January 1997.

1997 with Linda Cabe Halpern and Herb Amato. "James Madison University: General Education Program Design." 83rd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges and Universities. 15 January 1997.

1996 with Chris Fox. "Requirements for a Computer Science Curriculum Emphasizing Information Technology." Proceedings of the 27th SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, K.J. Klee (editor), February 1996.

1995 "A Computer Science Program Emphasizing Information Technology." ITE'95 -- Second Annual Conference on Information Technology Education. Rochester, New York, 31 October 1995.

1991 with Ray Schneider, et al. "A Stratified Blackboard-like Architecture for Computer-based Instruments." 1991 IEEE International Conference on System, Man and Cybernetics. Charlottesville, Virginia, 3-6 October 1991.

1991 with Brent Taylor. "Computational Reflection." Fifth National Conference on Undergraduate Research. Pasadena, California, 21-23 March 1991.

1990 Signaling Regions, Multiprocessing in a Shared Memory. Software, Practice & Experience, 20:4, 325-356, April 1990.

1990 with Patrick Widener. "A Study of the Support of the Programming Language C++ for Generic Abstract Data Types." Fourth National Conference on Undergraduate Research. Schenectady, New York, 18-21 April 1990.

1989 with Sharon Glesner. "Alternative Semantics for the Signal/Wait Mechanism in Interprocess Synchronization." Third National Conference on Undergraduate Research. San Antonio, Texas, 27-29 April 1989.

1987 On Implementing Generic Data Types in Modula-2. Journal of Ada, Pascal, and Modula-2, 6:5.

1986 Advanced Programming and Data Structures in Pascal. Wadsworth Publishing Company.


Mr. Howard Schmidt currently is the Director of Information Security for Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington. In that capacity he directs the activity of those responsible for security of Microsoft's Information Assurance program worldwide. Prior to that he was a Supervisory Special Agent, Director of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), Computer Forensic Lab, and Deputy Chief of Computer Crime and Information Warfare. He came to AFOSI from the FBI at the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) where he headed the Computer Exploitation Team as a Computer Forensic Specialist. Prior to that he was a Sergeant with the Chandler (Arizona) Police Department. He had been a police officer for 11 years and a SWAT team member for 9 years. He attended the Arizona Law Enforcement Training Academy (ALETA).

Schmidt holds a Bachelor's Degree in Business Administration and a Master of Arts in Organizational Management. He holds a Technician class Ham Radio License and a Single Engine Land pilot's license. He was a member of the Arizona Air National Guard and has been an instructor at the Professional Military Education Center at McGhee Tyson Air Force Base, Tennessee. He currently serves as a member of the U.S. Army Reserves, Criminal Investigation Division as a Special Agent.

He has investigated cases where violators used personal computers to store customer lists, drug ledgers, and financial information. In 1987 he was invited to instruct a class in the use of personal computers in narcotics/financial investigations for the Phoenix Field Office of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The class is a 40-hour course designed to teach local law enforcement agents advanced narcotics investigations including a block of instruction on computer search and seizure techniques.

Schmidt is a regular instructor for the National White Collar Crime Center, the FBI Academy, Quantico, Virginia, and the OSI Special Investigations Academy. He is a former executive board member of the International Organization of Computer Evidence (IOCE). He also served as the Defense Department co-chairman of the Federal Computer Investigators Committee (FCIC). He is a member of the American Academy of Forensic Scientists (AAFS) and the American Society of Crime Lab Directors (ASCLD). He is a Distinguished adjunct professor at the University of New Haven, Connecticut. He has developed and instructed computer forensic and computer crime investigation classes across the nation in DOS, WIN 95, WIN NT, MAC and OS/2. He often serves as an instructor in the collection and preservation of computer evidence for various federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies including FBI, DEA, U.S. Army Military Intelligence/Counter Intelligence, AF OSI, and the U.S. Secret Service.

Schmidt has processed computer evidence for the FBI, DEA, U.S. Customs, U.S. Postal Service, and a number of other state and local law enforcement agencies.

The cases have been varied in nature and included telecommunications fraud, extortion, narcotics trafficking, racketeering, murder, forgery, and child pornography. Schmidt has conducted numerous investigations regarding the use of telecommunications to obtain and distribute child pornography. He has been an expert witness in court in various Internet-based computer crime and computer forensic related cases and has processed computer evidence in more than 100 different cases. He has provided training to various state and federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies in the investigation of violations of law in the area of computer crime and information warfare. He provided expert witness testimony on behalf of the Department of Justice in defense of the Communications Decency Act (CDA) which was written to prevent minors from being exposed to indecent materials on the Internet. He has served on the Steering committee and as a speaker for the Defense Department's Fraud in Cyberspace conference and delivered the keynote address at the National Defense University and the National White Collar Crime Center's Economic Crime Summit.

Schmidt has developed procedures related to the seizure and processing of evidence found on personal computers. He has been involved in Beta testing of Computer Hardware and Software for IBM, Microsoft, Logitech, Symantec, Intuit, Quicken, Stacker and Alpha Software.

U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda
USIA Electronic Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, November 1998