by Scott Long
A momentous event took place Oct. 21, 1998, with the signing of the Trojan Spirit to Warfighter Information Network migration plan. The signing ceremony between Chief of Signal MG Peter Cuviello and MG Chuck Thomas, commander of the Armys intelligence center, culminated 16 months of work between the Signal and intelligence communities.
Quoting the Chief of Signal, "Weve worked closely with the (intelligence, electronic warfare and sensors) community to make this plan a reality. The WIN-intelligence gateway discussed in this plan is essential for the IEW&S community to enjoy WINs full benefits."
This article is intended to bring Army Communicator readers up to date on the migration plans specifics. The plan represents a significant commitment by the military-intelligence community, both operationally and financially, to use WINs extensive capabilities to meet all its information-exchange requirements and needlines at all levels of security.
The TS II to WIN migration plan is the single, unified plan for the Army command, control, communications and computers community to strengthen communications support for the functional area of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance. The plan serves as an enabler for Force XXI support and Army After Next.
Integrating both the requirements to recapitalize or extend TS IIs operational life and migrate communications functionality to WIN, the migration plan serves a roadmap for improved situation awareness, precision engagement and collaborative planning.
The plan is actually the second of two publications containing Training and Doctrine Command directives to merge TS IIs communications capabilities with the area common-user network. The first document, "Concept for the Functional Migration of Trojan Spirit II to the Area Common-User System," helped define the challenge of this task. That document was approved by LTG John Miller Aug. 7, 1995, and set the stage for the current migration plan.
Thomas and former Chief of Signal MG Michael Ackerman directed the migration plan during the Signal Center and intelligence center "home on home" conference June 10, 1997. The plans basis is implementing Millers guidance. The plan also is the basis for integration and interoperability of information, communications and electronic systems and subsystems.
The migration plan focuses on the IEW&S communitys specific needs at division, corps and echelons-above-corps levels. It addresses specific needlines and information-exchange requirements, commonly referred to as operational requirements, and what must occur to meet those requirements -- both near- and far-term. The plan also addresses the systems architecture needed to meet these requirements from tactical, strategic, power-projection and business perspectives.
The coordinated plans goal is to synchronize Army activities related to TS II and WIN. This document is a reality because of extensive coordination and teamwork among the Signal Center, intelligence center, TRADOC, Communications-Electronics Command, program executive officer for command, control and communications systems and Army headquarters.
WIN is what will allow the intelligence and electronics warfare customer to leverage and benefit from a much larger, capable and more efficient communications systems that connects directly to Defense Integrated Systems Network. WIN will save the IEW community significant resources and will allow MI soldiers who currently operate TS II systems to revert back to their full-time intelligence analysts duties.
(Editors note: for more information on TS II, read the linked story.)
The Signal Regiments goal, in light of the TS II migration plan, is threefold:
|Support the IEW communitys efforts to modernize TS II to buy time for the WIN architecture to mature and be adequately tested;|
|Work with CECOMs Trojan branch to ensure any modernization of TS II makes sense from a WIN-compatibility perspective;|
|Fully absorb the functionality of TS II into WIN.|
Successfully migrating all existing TS II communications functionality to WIN begins with a solid understanding and acknowledgement of the validated operational architecture. A supporting WIN systems architecture cant be developed without this essential information.
Types of IEW information WIN must disseminate as part of this migration effort consists of data, voice, primary imagery, secondary imagery, IEW database transfers, video and collaborative planning.
For this migration to be a success, WIN must provide access to secure Internet-protocol router network (secret), joint worldwide intelligence system data (top secret/special compartmented information), JWICS videoteleconferencing (TS/ SCI), joint deployable intelligence support system VTC (TS/SCI) and Defense Message System for each analysis-and-control element at division, corps and EAC.
The ACE at each echelon also has specific requirements to exchange information (commonly referred to as a "needline") with each other, with adjacent units, with tactical exploitation systems at each echelon; all-source analysis system/integrated priority list; integrated meteorological system; National Security Agency; Defense Intelligence Agency; Central Intelligence Agency; National Photographic Interpretation Center; intelligence remote locations; National Ground Intelligence Center; regional signal-intelligence operations centers; and the Trojan central-operations facility.
The Army intelligence centers combat-developments director -- in close coordination with Intelligence and Security Command and the Signal Center -- has produced one of the most defined and exact operational architectures the Signal Center has ever received from a functional proponent. The OA defines every needline at division, corps and EAC, as well what information has to be disseminated. The OA also defines classification levels of the products being disseminated, speed-of-service requirements, and how much and how often that information is moving between needlines during various times of the day. These times of day are defined as busy hours, medium hours and low hours.
The complete and detailed computations for each needline between division, corps, EAC and national intelligence sources are too voluminous for this article. The complete set of requirements have been staffed, validated and are being entered into the Signal Centers C4 requirements-definition program database. For this articles purpose, a summary of information-exchange requirements for secret and SCI data, VTC and voice traffic are provided in the table below. These are the bandwidth requirements the Signal Regiment has committed to provide at each echelon in direct support of IEW operations at tactical-operations centers.
|Busy hour||1.0384 mbps||1.5504 mbps||1.8064 mbps|
|Medium hour||.7824 mbps||1.0384 mbps||1.1664 mbps|
|Low hour||. 6544 mbps||.77824 mbps||.7824 mbps|
The intelligence centers futures branch (formerly the combat-development directorate) has produced a new TS II operational-requirements document establishing the validated need to increase TS IIs capabilities. Before WIN is able to support TS II communications migration, recapitalizing current assets is required to ensure MIs information requirements are met. This recapitalization is key to allowing TS II to maintain current capabilities, support new validated requirements and migrate into WIN with compatible communication components. This recapitalization is planned in two parts, satellite communications and baseband.
SATCOM. As the WIN program is evolving, we must recapitalize on TS II assets by replacing key SATCOM components. This near-term effort will increase efficiency of existing satellite-bandwidth use while maintaining backward compatibility with the current TS II system. Various TS II SATCOM components are old and no longer supportable. By replacing these unsupportable components, TS II will be able to support increasing MI information requirements, as well as providing short- and long-term support through better use of satellite bandwidth until WIN can assume the TS II communications mission.
ADVANCED SATELLITE MODEMS. The migration plan directs recapitalizing TS II terminals by replacing the old satellite modems with modern satellite modems that provide advanced radio-frequency modulation and Reed-Solomon-based forward-error correction. This modem replacement will reduce current satellite power limitation and increase TS IIs efficiency. This will decrease required SATCOM bandwidth and reduce communications costs.
For example, on a T-1 Ku-band link from Fort Belvoir, Va., to a TS II, this modem upgrade could reduce the communications cost by about 30 percent, saving $2,400 a month. This cost reduction becomes even more pronounced in the C-band regions, where TS II is extremely power-limited. With TS IIs projected life growing eight to 10 years, it makes excellent business sense to capitalize on these cost-savings technologies.
The new satellite modems are compatible with modems installed or planned for the super-high-frequency triband advanced range extension terminal; secure, mobile, antijam, reliable, tactical terminal; and standardized tactical-entry point sites. Also, the modems are backward-compatible with satellite modems in the TS II program.
CRYPTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT. The KIV-7HS used in TS II cant support objective data-rate requirements of up to eight megabits per second identified in TS IIs ORD and is incompatible with STEP sites. By installing KIV-19 cryptographic equipment to supplement KIV-7HS equipment, data-rate requirements identified in the TS II ORD can be met, as well as compatibility with STEP cryptographic equipment.
TROJAN BASEBAND MIGRATION. To support migration of TS to WIN, CECOM has chosen Internet protocol with voice support over asynchronous-transfer mode as the best course of action. IP services provide the inherent quality of ATMs and advanced routers service capabilities that meet all functional requirements for voice, video and IP-traffic precedence. This solution also gives MI the added benefit of direct ATM services, with inherent scalability to migrate to full ATM support if future requirements dictate. The equipment identified to support this decision is what will actually allow WIN to assume all TS II communications functionality and allow TS IIs to be turned off.
As depicted in the figure below, this architecture requires three independent routers, each operating at a designated security level: sensitive but unclassified, secret and TS/SCI. Each router is equipped with an ATM interface. A tactical FASTlane ATM encryption device, which feeds into the WIN ATM switch at the backbone security level, would encrypt two of these ATM streams. The third router will be at the WIN backbones security level and wont require encryption.
This equipment, which will be required at each ACE at division, corps and EAC, is called the WIN intelligence gateway. This gateway which will be purchased with MI dollars will be installed by the Signal officer assigned to each MI battalion at division, corps and EAC.
This architecture also provides voice-over-IP as a functional replacement for the current TS voice architecture. The planned VOIP solution uses a standards-based joint-technical-architecture-validated H.323 voice-encapsulation algorithm for transferring voice across an IP router network. Using secure-terminal-equipment telephones also allows migration to WIN for voice services and provides backward-compatibility with STU-III phones. STE phones can be operated using either TS II-provided VOIP service or WIN-provided Integrated Systems Digital Network service.
Again, WIN-IG will allow all information at all MI security levels -- from unclassified up to and including TS/SCI -- to reach the WIN ATM node switch for transmission. Each of the 38 TS IIs will require this gateway as a minimum to leverage communication support from WIN and DISN.
The gateway appears in the figures below.
The Signal Regiment will begin to assume the TS II communications mission in fiscal years 2004-2005 for the first digitized corps, FY 05-06 for the second digitized corps and FY 08-11 for the rest of the Army. During these years, TS terminals will be recapitalized, and WIN-IG equipment will be installed in each MI battalion with TS II systems. At the same time, sister Signal units will be fielded WIN equipment (WIN-T switches, high-capacity line-of-sight radios, STAR-Ts, SMART-Ts) to meet the MI users bandwidth requirements.
The table below provides the planning schedule for TS IIs modernization and migration to WIN-IG. The schedule for migrating TS II into WIN-IG is directly tied to WIN fielding dates. When the WIN-T fielding schedule is better defined, transition of the modified TS II migration into WIN-IG can be more clearly defined.
|WIN migration||MI brigade||Affected MI unit||Qty Spirit||Spirit mod. fldg.||Supporting Sig unit||WIN fielding||WIN-IG trans|
|1st digitized corps||4th Inf. Div.||104th MI Bn. ops||2||02||124th Sig. Bn.||00-01||03-04|
|1st digitized corps||1st Cav. Div.||312th MI Bn. ops||2||02||13th Sig. Bn.||01-02||03-04|
|1st digitized corps||3d ACR||66th MI Co. ops||1||02||3d Sig. Bde.||01-02||03-04|
|1st digitized corps||111th MI Bde./ Tng.||304th MI Bn.||2||03||15th Sig. Bde.||03-04||04-05|
|1st digitized corps||504th MI Bde.||III Corps||1||03||3d Sig. Bde.||03-04||04-05|
|1st digitized corps||504th MI Bde.||303d MI Bn. ops||1||03||3d Sig. Bde.||03-04||04-05|
|1st digitized corps||501st MI Bde.||532d MI Bn.||3||03||11th Sig. Bde.||03-04||04-05|
|2d digitized corps||525th MI Bde.||XVIII Abn. Corps||1||04||35th Sig. Bde.||04-05||05-06|
|2d digitized corps||525th MI Bde.||319th MI Bn.||1||04||35th Sig. Bde.||04-05||05-06|
|2d digitized corps||82d Abn. Div.||313th MI Bn. ops||2||04||82d Sig. Bde.||04-05||05-06|
|2d digitized corps||2d ACR||502d MI Co. ops||1||04||35th Sig. Bde.||04-05||05-06|
|2d digitized corps||513th MI Bde.||201st MI Bn.||2||04||11th Sig. Bde.||04-05||05-06|
|2d digitized corps||513th MI Bde.||297th MI Bn.||2||04||11th Sig. Bde.||04-05||05-06|
|2d digitized corps||500th MI Bde.||205th MI Bn.||1||04||11th Sig. Bde.||04-05||05-06|
|2d digitized corps||101st Aaslt. Div.||311th MI Bn. ops||2||05||501st Sig. Bn.||05-06||06-07|
|2d digitized corps||3d Inf. Div. (M)||103d MI Bn. ops||2||05||123d Sig. Bn.||05-06||06-07|
|2d digitized corps||10th Mtn. Div.||110th MI Bn. ops||1||05||10th Sig. Bn.||08-09||08-09|
|Rest of Army||66th MI Gp.||66th MI Gp.||2||05||22d Sig. Bde.||07-10||08-11|
|Rest of Army||2d Inf. Div.||102d MI Bn. ops||1||05||122d Sig. Bn.||07-10||08-11|
|Rest of Army||1st Inf. Div.||101st MI Bn. ops||1||05||121st Sig. Bn.||07-10||08-11|
|Rest of Army||1st Arm. Div.||501st MI Bn. ops||1||05||141st Sig. Bn.||07-10||08-11|
|Rest of Army||V Corps||302d MI Bn. ops||2||05||22d Sig. Bde.||07-10||08-11|
|Rest of Army||I Corps||502d MI Bn. ops||2||06||29th Sig. Bn.||07-10||08-11|
|Rest of Army||25th Inf. Div.||125th MI Bn. ops||1||06||125th Sig. Bn.||07-10||08-11|
|Rest of Army||6th Inf. Bde.||110th MI Bn. ops Co. F||1||06||29th Sig. Bn.||07-10||08-11|
Note that if and when WIN-T fielding dates are pushed to the right, the Army will have to provide more funding to sustain TSs until the WIN architecture is in place and properly tested to support MIs mission. At no time will TS IIs leave the inventory until division, corps and EAC commanders operationally approve WINs ability to do the job. Once WIN has assumed the TS II communications mission, WIN-IG will be removed from TS II terminals and left behind in the MI battalion. At that point, INSCOM and the Army will dispose of TS II terminals and all associated SATCOM equipment in a coordinated effort.
The migration plan is a good-news story. After many years of uncertainty, misconceptions and sometimes ill will between MI and the Signal Corps, we now have a TRADOC-approved plan we can all agree on. This is a significant start to a complex challenge. Were all on the same sheet of music as we work to make this plan a reality.
Mr. Long, a retired colonel, is a Sytex Inc. support contractor for PEO IEW&S. He serves as the IEW&S liaison officer at the Signal Center and supports the IEW&S community on communications requirements. He completed 25 years of active duty in the Signal Corps in 1995, with his last duty assignment as chief of the space and strategic systems division, directorate of information systems for C4 at the Pentagon.
ACE analysis-and-control element
ATM asynchronous-transfer mode
C4 command, control, communications and computers
CECOM Communications-Electronics Command
DISN Defense Integrated Systems Network
EAC echelons above corps
FY fiscal year
I3 installation information-technology infrastructure
IEW intelligence and electronic warfare
IEW&S intelligence, electronic warfare and sensors
IP Internet protocol
INSCOM Intelligence and Security Command
JTRS joint-tactical-radio system
JWICS -- joint worldwide intelligence system
Mbps megabits per second
MI military intelligence
MSE mobile-subscriber equipment
NIPRNET non-secure Internet-protocol router network
OA operational architecture
ORD operational-requirements document
PEO program executive officer
SATCOM satellite communications
SBU sensitive but unclassified
SIPRNET secure Internet-protocol router network
SMART-T secure, mobile, antijam, reliable, tactical terminal
STAR-T s(uper-high-frequency) triband advanced range-extension terminal
STE secure-terminal equipment
STEP standardized tactical-entry points
TACLANE tactical FASTlane
TDVI Trojan digital voice instrument
TNCC T(rojan Spirit) network-control center
TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command
TRITAC triservice tactical
TS Trojan Spirit
TS/SCI top secret/special compartmented information
WIN Warfighter Information Network
WIN-IG Warfighter Information Network-intelligence gateway
WIN-T Warfighter Information Network-terrestrial