OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT
VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING
TACTICAL UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (VTUAV)
1. General Description of Operational Capability
a. Mission Area. This requirement relates to the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition) Mission Areas 212 (Indirect Fire Support), 217 (Land Warfare Surveillance and Reconnaissance), 223 (Close Air Support and Interdiction), 232 (Amphibious, Strike, and Anti Surface Warfare), 237 (Naval Warfare Surveillance and Reconnaissance), 322 (Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) for Tactical Land Warfare), 345 (Tactical Communications), 370 (Electronic Combat), and 373 (Tactical Surveillance, Reconnaissance, and Target Acquisition).
b. System Description. The Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) system will be compatible with the Tactical Control System (TCS), and consist of Air Vehicles (AV), Ground Control Stations (GCS), Ground Data Terminals (GDT), Remote Data Terminals (RDT), Modular Mission Payloads (MMP) and tactical communications devices.
c. Operational Concept
(1) The Naval White Letters Forward...From the Sea and Operational Maneuver From the Sea (OMFTS) provide direction to the U.S. Navy (USN) and the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) concerning the challenges of the post-Cold War world and shifts the operational focus of naval forces from the open ocean to the world's littorals. The White Letters introduce the concept of Littoral Warfare, and emphasize the capability of naval forces as a forward deployed crisis response force to deter conflict in the littorals, and to prevent escalation and restore stability where deterrence has failed.
(2) The VTUAV system will be located in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) squadrons within the USN and USMC. It will be a replacement for the Pioneer UAV system. When required, individual detachments or partial VTUAV systems may be combined to support protracted operations or to meet high demand tasking, afloat or ashore. In order to overcome potential line-of-sight (LOS) problems that may arise as a result of conducting operations ashore and to provide maximum operational flexibility, the capability to conduct split site operations is required for all systems.
(3) The VTUAV system will be TCS compliant and use Service standard computer based GCSs to perform detailed mission planning and mission execution. AVs, carrying MMPs, either manually controlled by a GCS or executing a preprogrammed route, will fly to areas of interest typically predetermined by intelligence preparation of the battlefield or cueing from other systems. Information received by the GCS will be processed, analyzed and synthesized as necessary for dissemination via radio networks, Service local area networks, or existing Service C4I systems.
d. Support Concept
(1) USN/USMC. The VTUAV system shall abide by the guidance of the Naval Aviation Maintenance Program (NAMP). Each deployable VTUAV system must be provisioned so as to be capable of extended operations (greater than 30 days) without resources external to those carried by the host ship. Intermediate and depot level maintenance will not be readily available onboard most aviation capable ships.
(2) USMC Land-based. When land-based, the VTUAV system detachment's organizational maintenance capability will be compatible with USMC organizational transportation assets carrying sufficient test equipment and parts to support operations for an initial 72 hour period.
e. Mission Need Statement (MNS)
(1) Joint Requirements Oversight Council Memorandum (JROCM) 003-90, dated January 1990, validated the MNS for a Close Range Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) Capability.
(2) Tactical Vehicle Reconnaissance/Surveillance and Target Acquisition (TVRSTA) Capability MNS, approved by the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, 6 January 1998.
(3) The USN Vertical Takeoff and Landing Integrated Platform for Extended Range Reconnaissance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VIPER UAV) Operational Requirements Document (ORD), dated 19 February 1992, validated the USN requirement for a VTOL capable UAV.
2. Threat. The VTUAV system is expected to provide support across the operational continuum from Military Operations Other than War to high-intensity conflict.
a. Threat to be Countered. The VTUAV system will be exposed to direct and indirect threats; the level of threat is scenario dependent. Further, the range of weapons to be used against the VTUAV system will vary from region to region, country to country.
(1) Direct Threats. Those threats which can damage or destroy the AV in-flight, including surface-to-air missiles and air defense artillery. Fighter aircraft and helicopters armed with air-to-air missiles pose a secondary threat to the AV. Furthermore, the GCS may be threatened by attacks with radiation-homing missiles, artillery and surface-to-surface missiles.
(2) Indirect Threats. Those threats which can reduce mission effectiveness and include Information Operations (IO) and Electronic Warfare (EW). The VTUAV sensors may be vulnerable to jamming, spoofing, and camouflage, concealment, and deception (CC&D). Data/communication links may be vulnerable to jamming, disruption, and deception. In addition, lasing and subsequent damage of VTUAV's optical sensors is also a possibility.
b. Projected Threat Environment. Projected threats to VTUAV system are described in the following publications:
(1) Expeditionary Warfare Threat to Environment Projections, Vol 1 - 3 (U). Provides a baseline threat in support of the Marine Corps weapon systems acquisition programs and developments.
(2) Vol 1: Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I), C4I Support, and Electronic Warfare (U) MCIA-1527-001-98, (U) May 98. Specifically addresses threat technologies and innovations which may adversely affect USMC C4I and EW operations.
(3) Vol 2: Antiair (U), MCIA-1543-001-98, Aug 98. Addresses threat technologies and innovations of concern to USMC air defense assets.
(4) Naval Strike and Air Warfare Systems (U), ONI-TA-017-98, Jan 98. Provides the threat assessment foundation to assist in determining future tactical strike and air warfare program requirements and for use in deriving threat statements for program documentation.
(5) Worldwide Threat to U.S. Navy & Marine Forces, 1997 - 2017, Volume I and II (U), ONI-1200-001-98, Oct 97. Provides an overall description of the extensive ranges of threats along the littorals.
(6) System Threat Assessment Report for the Joint Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Sep 95.
3. Shortcomings of Existing Systems
a. Pioneer. Production and fielding of the Pioneer UAV system was stopped in 1988 with minimal subsequent funding provided for system sustainment. While upgrades to the Pioneer UAV systems are planned to increase current capabilities until a suitable replacement is fielded, these upgrades will not provide the combat radius, payload capacity, speed, or endurance required to support emerging concepts for operations in the littorals or during sustained operations ashore. Current and projected deficiencies include:
(1) Limited shipboard compatibility:
(a) Disrupts flight operations.
1 Requires the clearing of the flight deck for launch and recovery.
2 Requires a rocket-assisted takeoff.
3 Requires a net or arresting gear for recovery.
(b) Does not have a heavy fuel engine.
(2) Number and size of MMPs are limited by AV payload capacity, AV engine power available and AV electrical power generating capability.
(3) Obsolete and system-unique GCSs.
(4) Inadequate speed.
b. Medium Altitude Endurance (MAE) UAV. The Predator MAE system, although not organic to Naval Forces, has the range, endurance, and payloads required to support littoral operations. Other limitations of the Predator UAV include:
(1) No shipboard compatibility:
(a) Unable to launch and recover on air capable ships.
(b) No heavy fuel engine.
(2) Inadequate speed.
(3) Requires host nation support to forward deploy.
(4) C-band LOS datalink will not be compatible with future battlegroup Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum usage.
(5) Predator MAE systems are normally employed as theater level assets.
4. Capabilities Required
a. System Performance
(1) Mission Scenarios and Employment Tactics
1 VTUAV Detachments will provide commanders near-real time imagery and data required to support Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) requirements independent of, or in concert with, the use of manned aircraft or reliance on limited Joint Theater or National Assets. Specific missions supported by the VTUAV system include: an embedded ISR, Over-The-Horizon Classification, and Targeting for naval surface fire support/air warfare. Other growth mission areas will be pursued utilizing the JROC chartered, UAV Special Study Group's Mission Prioritization Report for guidance.
2 The VTUAV will be an organic asset of the Battle Group Commander or ship to which it is attached/deployed. Typically, the VTUAV will launch and proceed to a designated mission area by flying directly to or through a series of preprogrammed waypoints. Upon entry into the mission area, control of the AV and MMP may be turned over from the primary operator to a mission specific operator or the AV and MMP may execute a preprogrammed loiter command about the target area. Upon completion of the mission, the AV may return to the launching ship, another air capable ship, or ashore for recovery.
1 The VTUAV system will provide the Marine Corps the capabilities required to conduct littoral operations in support of OMFTS. The VTUAV's range, endurance, and communications and information systems (CIS) will provide the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) commander with a means to enhance his situational awareness, assist in the engagement of threat forces, exercise command and control, and assess the results of ongoing activities. The VTUAV system will perform a variety of functions including reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, target designation, communications and data relay, electronic warfare, and delivery of non-lethal weapons and remote sensors. The VTUAV system capabilities will assist the MAGTF by executing missions from significant standoff distances as called for in OMFTS. These capabilities will enhance the MAGTF's ability to conduct operations across the spectrum of conflict, to include Military Operations Other Than War as well as to function in a wide variety of environments to include urban terrain, mountains, deserts, and jungles. The VTUAV system should have growth capability to support other evolving mission requirements.
2 The VTUAV's ability to rapidly deploy aboard and operate from all air capable ships will provide the flexibility required to meet the needs of tactical commanders at all levels of the MAGTF. The VTUAV system will be deployed as an organic asset of the MAGTF commander for both general and direct support. When required, control of the AV and MMP will be capable of being passed ashore, or the entire system will be capable of rapidly relocating ashore and operating from remote/austere sites in support of committed forces.
(2) Environmental Conditions. The VTUAV system will be capable of operating worldwide from all air capable shipboard platforms and austere forward operating sites. The system and its components:
(a) Must be protected from and resistant to the degrading effects of sand, dust, and salt-laden air (Threshold).
(b) Ground components must be capable of operating in ambient air temperatures ranging from -29o Celsius (C)(-20o Fahrenheit (F)) to +50oC (122oF)(Threshold)/from -29oC (-20oF) to +57oC (135oF)(Objective).
(c) AV must be capable of operating in ambient air temperatures ranging from -29o C (-20o F) to +50oC (122oF) (Threshold)/from -40oC (-40oF) to +65oC (150oF)(Objective).
(d) AV must be capable of operating in precipitation measuring 12.5 millimeter (mm)(1/2 inch) per hour for one hour (Threshold)/25 mm (1 inch)(Objective) per hour continuously.
(e) AV must be capable of transiting through light icing conditions (Threshold)/moderate icing conditions (Objective).
(3) General System Capabilities. The VTUAV system must be capable of:
(a) Initial programming and reprogramming AVs with mission planning data prior to launch with ground cable, data link or data storage unit (Threshold).
(b) Automatic launch and recovery of the AVs, both ashore and from any air capable ship with maximum deck displacement of +3 degrees (0) pitch and +50 roll displacement from 00 centerline (Threshold/Key Performance Parameter (KPP))/+50 pitch and +80 roll displacement from 00 centerline (Objective).
(c) Providing deck restraining capability compatible with all air capable ships (Threshold/KPP).
(d) Overriding the Automatic Launch and Recovery capability and revert to using manual controls for launch and recovery. The automatic landing capability must include the capability for the system to command the AV to abort the landing sequence and execute a pre-programmed wave-off flight routine (Threshold).
(e) Updating and reprogramming the mission plan from the controlling GCS during AV in-flight mode (Threshold).
(f) Passing control of an AV and MMP from one VTUAV GCS to another VTUAV GCS (Threshold/KPP).
(g) Be capable of simultaneously operating multiple MMPs during a single AV sortie (Threshold) (i.e. performing communication relay and video surveillance).
(h) Providing for 12 continuous hours of time on station within a 24-hour period at maximum mission radius (Threshold).
(i) Operating in the naval and land-based Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) environment (Threshold).
(j) A Target Location Error of less than or equal to (<) 25 meters (m)(Threshold)/< 10 m (Objective).
(4) Air Vehicle. The basic AV components will include communication data links required for AV control, an embedded communication relay capability, IFF equipment, fuel, oil, and other fluids necessary for operation. The basic AV must:
(a) Be capable of conducting Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) operations at 4000 feet (ft) Density Altitude (DA) from all air capable ships, with a maximum deck displacement of 3o pitch and 5o roll from 0o centerline with a 200 lb. MMP and 100% fuel load (Threshold/KPP)/6000 ft DA, 300 lb. MMP, 100% fuel load (Objective).
(b) Be capable of conducting VTOL operations at 4000 ft DA from an unprepared land-based site, suitable to conduct air operations without damage to AV or components, with a 200 lb. MMP, 100% fuel load (Threshold/KPP)/6000 ft DA, 300 lb. MMP, 100% fuel load (Objective).
(c) Be capable of a continuous, steady state hover, out of ground effect, with a 200 lb. MMP (Threshold)/300 lb. MMP (Objective), with a 100% fuel load, 4000 ft DA (Threshold/KPP)/6000 ft DA (Objective).
(d) Be capable of operating its MMPs in a steady state hover as described in paragraph 4.a.(4).(c) (Threshold).
(e) Have a USN aviation standard embedded (secure voice capable) communication, Ultra High Frequency radio (UHF)/Very High Frequency radio (VHF) relay capability (Threshold)/MMP data and HF voice relay capability (Objective).
(f) Be capable of launching, recovering and if applicable, rotor engagement in 25 knots (Threshold)/45 knots (Objective) of wind. Cross wind and turbulence operating limits will be determined by dynamic interface testing.
(g) Have a service ceiling on an International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) standard day to 15,000 ft Mean Sea Level (MSL) (Threshold)/20,000 ft MSL (Objective).
(h) Have an icing detection capability (Threshold)/icing rate detection capability (Objective).
(i) Have a minimum of 2.5 kilowatts (kW) extra power output to support MMPs (Threshold).
(j) Incorporate a payload capability to include:
1 A minimum payload capacity of at least 200 lbs. (Threshold/KPP)/300 lbs. (Objective).
2 An internal payload capacity of at least two cubic feet (Threshold)/capability to carry and release an external payload (Objective).
3 An initial MMP capability that consists of a day/night passive imagery sensor and laser designator with the capability to identify and designate a standard-sized NATO target of 2.5 square meters from a slant range of 8 kilometers (km) (Threshold)/16 km (Objective).
4 Transmission of coordinates for payload center field of view to GCS and RDT (Threshold).
(k) With an MMP of at least 200 lbs. at 100% fuel load (Threshold)/300 lbs. at 100% fuel load (Objective), the basic AV must:
1 Provide an operational/cruise airspeed range of 0 to 135 knots True Airspeed (TAS)(Threshold)/200 knots TAS (Objective) under an ISA standard day conditions.
2 Have a combat radius of at least 110 nautical miles (nm), be capable of loitering at that combat radius for 3 hours utilizing internal fuel only, (Threshold)/5 hours (Objective) then return to its original launch point without refueling, with a 20 minute fuel reserve calculated at a 10,000 ft MSL, maximum endurance flight profile, under ISA standard day conditions (Threshold).
(l) With an MMP of at least 100 lbs., have a combat radius of at least 250 nm, be capable of loitering at that combat radius for 2 hours utilizing internal fuel only, then return to its original launch point without refueling, with a 20 minute fuel reserve calculated at a 10,000 ft MSL, maximum endurance flight profile, under ISA standard day conditions (Objective).
(m) Have the following in-flight capabilities:
1 Autonomous navigation and flight between multiple, selected waypoints (Threshold).
2 Automatic loiter on command (Threshold).
3 Automatic execution of lost-link procedures to reacquire the link in the event of data link loss (Threshold).
4 Automatic return to pre-planned recovery areas in the event a lost data link is not reacquired (Threshold).
5 Autonomous execution of emergency recovery procedures (Threshold).
6 Spatial location accuracy within 25 m (82 ft)(Threshold)/10 m (33 ft)(Objective) during the in-flight phase of the mission.
7 Transmission of AV magnetic heading, ground track, altitude, airspeed, spatial orientation, and designated target coordinates from the AV to GCS and RDT (Threshold).
(n) Have an Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Mode I, II, III, IIIC, and IV combat identification system capability and be capable of automatic or manual in-flight reprogramming (Threshold)/Mode S and a Precision Location Information (PLI) transponder capability (Objective).
(o) Have navigation and anti-collision lighting which are in compliance with Federal Aviation Administration regulations, capable of operator activation or deactivation from the GCS/GDT, with anti-collision lighting having a GCS/GDT operator selectable capability in the near infra-red (IR) range for Night Vision Device (NVD) compatibility or visible light range (Threshold)/NVD compatible navigation lights (Objective).
(p) A mission ready AV must be capable of being emplaced by no more than four people (Threshold)/two people (Objective) to support and perform the movement of the AV from its prime mover/storage site to the launch/recovery site and then back to the prime mover/storage site.
(q) Be capable of being gravity refueled (Threshold)/ gravity and pressure refueled (Objective).
(r) Have a defuel capability (Threshold).
(s) Have capability for fresh water wash of the airframe and engine (Threshold).
(t) Have a meteorological sensor with the capability to calculate and report winds aloft, measure temperature (10 C), relative humidity (2% between 0% and 80% relative humidity and 3% between 80% and 100% relative humidity), and barometric pressure (0.1 inches (3.37 millibars) of mercury (Objective)).
(u) Have the capability for an onboard storage/downlink video playback for use during periods of data link interruption (Objective).
(5) Ground Control Station (GCS). The VTUAV GCS will contain the equipment, software, and software related hardware to facilitate mission planning, AV and MMP control, and receipt and distribution/dissemination of imagery/data, per the TCS ORD, JROCM 011-97, 3 Feb 97. The GCS must:
(a) Provide the following automated mission planning functions:
1 Importing of National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED), Digital Feature Analysis Data (DFAD), and Arc Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG) (Threshold)/importing of scanned hard copy maps (Objective).
2 Point and click route planning to include terrain avoidance warning, fuel calculations, Radar Terrain Masking (RTM), and payload search area information (Threshold).
3 AV preprogramming and system checks to include Built-in-Test (BIT) (Threshold).
4 Weight and balance calculations for takeoff, hover, in-flight and landing performance based on weight, drag index and environmental conditions (Threshold).
5 Have capability to control AVs, MMPs and perform mission planning simultaneously (Threshold).
(b) Utilize TCS as its core software program which will ensure all five levels of UAV interaction (Threshold).
(c) At a distance of 150 nm, LOS permitting, control at least one AV and MMP (Threshold)/two AVs and MMPs (Objective) without the use of external communication/data relay stations.
(d) At a distance of 250 nm, and with the use of no more than two communication/data relay stations, control at least one AV and MMP (Objective).
(e) Provide the capability to override automated/preprogrammed inputs to the AV and MMP (Threshold).
(f) Provide the means to pass control of an AV and MMP from one GCS to another GCS (Threshold/KPP).
(g) Use service standard computer hardware capable of supporting TCS software. Computer hardware must:
1 Have monitor(s) that provide easy reading of
displays by the operator (Threshold).
2 Have peripheral ports for external devices, at a minimum to include digital communications, remote monitoring, printer, LAN/WAN, and video recording port devices (Threshold).
(h) Provide a minimum of two common and redundant operator consoles (Threshold). USMC will require two common and redundant GCSs per VTUAV system (Threshold).
(i) Provide the capability to connect doctrinal communication networks via TCS (Threshold).
(j) Display near-real-time (NRT) imagery with annotation to include date and time group, target location when in the center field of view, north seeking arrow, AV position and ground track, heading and MSL altitude (Threshold).
(k) Record, digitize, annotate, and distribute imagery in National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) Version 2.0 or higher, via standard Department of Defense (DoD) communications systems (Threshold).
(l) Distribute NRT video to selected users (including commercially available television monitors and video cassette recorders (VCR)) via external ports (Threshold).
(6) Remote Data Terminal (RDT). The RDT must:
(a) Use TCS core software (Threshold).
(b) Be capable of being setup, placed into operation, and moved by one person within 30 minutes (Threshold).
(c) Receive NRT video via cable from an antenna located a minimum of 50 m from the RDT (Threshold)/200 m (Objective).
(d) Receive direct down-link from the AV antenna when within 50 km (27 nm)(Threshold)/280 km (150 nm)(Objective) of the AV.
(e) Provide automatic tracking of the AV (Threshold).
(f) Display annotated imagery to the operator and store selected freeze-frame video (Threshold).
(g) Provide output ports for peripheral devices (Threshold).
(h) Display NRT imagery to include date and time group, target location when in the center field of view, north seeking arrow, AV position, heading, and MSL altitude (Threshold).
b. Logistics and Readiness
(1) The VTUAV system shall have an availability goal exceeding that of the Pioneer UAV system and sufficient to meet average wartime sortie rate and average sortie duration during a
90 day deployment. The mean-time-to-repair (MTTR) avionics, structural and power plant systems using organizational personnel, standard tools and test equipment shall not exceed current capability. The VTUAV system will have a BIT capable of isolating failures to the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) or repairable, reconfigurable and reprogrammable items. The BIT shall identify and store faults for maintenance recall on demand and provide operators with a reliable and comprehensive check of system operational status for a mission go/no go determination prior to flight. The VTUAV system shall require the same or less organizational manpower and mobilization packup as the Pioneer UAV system.
(2) The VTUAV system will have an operating and support (O&S) cost (calculated in dollars per system flight hour), less than or equal to (Threshold)/25% less than (Objective) the current Pioneer UAV system O&S cost of $6,500.00 per system flight hour.
(3) VTUAV System Operational Suitability Requirements
CHARACTERISTICS PARAMETER THRESHOLD/OBJECTIVE
Availability Operational Availability (Ao) (Note 1,2) 85%/ 95%
Reliability Mean Flight Hours between Operational Mission Critical Failures (MFHBOMCF)
30 hrs/ 90 hrs
(Contd.) Mean Flight Hours Between Unscheduled Maintenance (MFHBUM) (Note 1,3,5) 24 hrs/ 36 hrs
Maintainability Mean-Time-To-Repair (MTTR) (Note 4,6)
ú 2.0 hrs/ú 1.0 hrs
Repairability Avionics Fault Detection Rate (FDet) (Notes 3,7,8)
Avionics Fault Isolation Rate (FI) (Notes 3,7,9) 75%/ 89%
1. During developmental and/or operational testing it may not be feasible to operate the VTUAV system sufficiently to develop a statistically meaningful data base for Ao, Maintainability, and Reliability values (i.e. if 1 of 5 events are negative, the one negative outcome may be the first one measured; therefore percentages shown in Table 1 cannot be fairly evaluated unless 5 events are observed). Consequently, extrapolation from laboratory testing and maintenance demonstrations (M-DEMOs) will substitute for the lack of available flight test data to evaluate VTUAV system upgrade ability to satisfy these requirements. Actual fleet data should satisfy these requirements by IOC plus one year.
2. Ao will be calculated using the following formula:
Ao = MTBM
Operational Availability covers all time segments the system is intended to be operational. Operational Availability is based on a mathematical relationship among three characteristics: reliability, maintainability, and the effectiveness of the logistics support system. Reliability is as the mean operating time plus mean standby time in an operational condition (represented by Mean Time Between Maintenance (MTBM)). Maintainability includes the mean maintenance time for both corrective and preventive actions (represented by Mean Maintenance Time (MMT)). Logistics support effectiveness is the combination of the logistics delay time plus any administrative delays (represented by Mean Logistics Down Time (MLDT)). The Mean Time Between Maintenance (MTBM) is based on all maintenance actions, whether corrective or preventative in nature.
3. Operation reliability is measured by mean flight hours between mission critical failures of the VTUAV System (MFHBMCFLRU), which includes mission critical hardware and software failures.
4. An operational mission failure (OMF) is a hardware failure or software fault that prevents the system from performing its intended mission. MFHBOMF will be calculated using the following formula:
MFHBOMF = Total flight hours
Total number of operational mission critical failures
5. MFHBUM will be calculated using the following formula:
MFHBUM = Total flight hours
Total number of unscheduled maintenance actions
6. MTTR is the average elapsed organizational level maintenance time needed to repair all operational VTUAV system hardware failures. It includes fault location and isolation, access time, fault correction, adjustment and calibration and follow-up checkout time. It does not include maintenance preparation, on-board and off-board logistic delay time.
7. During developmental and/or operational testing it may not be feasible to fly the sufficient amount of hours required to develop statistical meaningful data bases for FDET and FI values (Note 1).
8. FDET will be calculated using the following formula:
FDET = Total number of failures correctly detected by BIT
Total number of actual system failures
9. FI will be calculated using the following formula:
FI = Total number of failures correctly isolated to faulty LRU
Total number of failures correctly detected by BIT
c. Other System Characteristics
(1) Survivability. Survivability, Electronic Countermeasures (ECM)/Electronic Counter-countermeasures (ECCM) and low observable technologies will be considered in the design of the VTUAV system.
(2) Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Contamination. The system and support equipment must be compatible with current individual protective equipment and capable of being operated, maintained, and resupplied by personnel in Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) IV. System electronic components require neither nuclear hardening nor NBC decontamination survivability. The VTUAV system must be capable of NBC decontamination with Service standard decontamination equipment.
(3) Responsiveness. (Timelines are not applicable in an NBC environment).
(a) A VTUAV system must be capable of being off-loaded from its transport vehicles and achieving, at a minimum, Mission Capable (MC) status, i.e. one GCS and one AV with basic AV components, within 60 minutes (Threshold)/30 minutes (Objective).
(b) After a VTUAV system has achieved at a minimum, MC status, it must:
1 Be capable of launching a single AV within 30 minutes of receipt of tasking, assuming prior airspace coordination and mission planning have been completed (Threshold).
2 Be capable of being disassembled, made ready for transport, and reloaded aboard its ground transport vehicles within 60 minutes or less (Threshold).
3 Be capable of being fully integrated into the shipboard flight operations typically associated with the launch and recovery of helicopters and other conventional/VTOL aircraft from all air capable class ships. Specifically, the AV must be capable of launching within 10 minutes or less (Threshold)/5 minutes or less (Objective) after being positioned on its launch point on the flight deck. Following its recovery, the AV must be capable of being moved from the flight deck to its storage point in 10 minutes or less (Threshold)/5 minutes or less (Objective).
(4) Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3). The individual communication-electronic (C-E) equipment/subsystems utilized on the VTUAV system shall be intra-system/platform electromagnetically compatible to ensure that system/platform operational performance requirements are met. The performance of the VTUAV system shall not be degraded when exposed to its operational electromagnetic environment (natural or man-made).
(5) Spectrum Certification and Supportability. The VTUAV system, including any commercial or non-developmental items (NDI) subsystems, shall comply with all DoD, National and International spectrum management policies and regulations.
d. Combat Identification. The VTUAV system will incorporate the combat identification system to enhance battlefield situational awareness and battlefield target identification (Objective).
5. Program Support. The Tactical Control System ORD is a companion to the VTUAV ORD. The Joint Potential Designations for the VTUAV are: U.S. Army (joint), U.S. Marine Corps (joint), U.S. Navy (joint), and U.S. Air Force (joint interest).
a. Maintenance Planning. A Level of Repair Analysis (LORA) will be conducted for the VTUAV system to determine the most cost effective maintenance concept. At the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) date, the total system will be maintained as indicated by the LORA to the maximum extent feasible. In order to meet the IOC schedule, intermediate level maintenance, if required by the LORA, will not be demonstrated during Operational Evaluation (OPEVAL). At the Full Operational Capability (FOC) date, the system will be fully supported as indicated by the LORA.
b. Support Equipment (SE). If SE is required, design considerations should allow maximum use of common SE, minimizing the use of unique support equipment. Any required SE shall have diagnostic and fault isolation capability to facilitate troubleshooting, repair and/or replacement of components. Organizational level SE shall be capable of providing comprehensive end-to-end verification/validation of system operability. If I-level or D-level maintenance requirements for the VTUAV system require the use of automated test equipment (ATE), then ATE will be selected from the approved DoD family of testers. The probability of test equipment fault detection and confidence levels are defined in Table 1 of section 4.b.(3).
c. Human System Integration
(1) Manpower Requirements. A Manpower, Personnel, and Training (MPT) analysis will be conducted to recommend options to exploit technology to reduce MPT requirements. Results will be documented in a USN Training Plan and must not exceed current Pioneer UAV system manning levels. The VTUAV system must be maintained with skills resident within the squadron.
(a) Unit Training. Computer Based Training will be maximized for operator and maintenance personnel. Maintenance personnel shall initially be trained by contractor, government development test personnel or a government/contractor team with an approved training course. Organic maintenance training shall start no later than 90 days after IOC.
1 Operator and maintainer embedded and add-on interactive training, with self-paced instruction, duplicating VTUAV system flight performance characteristics, capabilities, and limitations are required (Objective).
2 Simulators and training devices will maximize training effectiveness while minimizing the impact of actual flight hours on equipment. Simulators shall have an embedded simulation capability that fully emulates all functions required to operate both the air vehicle and MMP, with a growth capability for new MMPs.
(b) Technical Manuals (TM). TMs, in accordance with the NAMP, will be required to provide operator information and maintenance procedures.
(2) Environmental, System Safety and Health Hazard Assessment. The design of the VTUAV system shall address environmental, safety and health requirements, and the design shall consider the life-cycle costs of maintaining the environmental, safety and health factors of the system.
d. Computer Resources. The system must be capable of providing a 50 percent (Threshold)/75 percent (Objective) growth potential over delivered capability.
e. Other Logistics Considerations. A Supportability Analysis (SA) shall be performed to address any peculiar logistics concerns of the VTUAV system and its SE. The SA shall ensure support considerations are integrated into system and equipment design and that repair level decisions are based on an operationally sound and cost effective design. A comprehensive SA database shall be developed to ensure maximum use of automated SA reports for determining and budgeting for logistics support resources.
f. Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I)
(1) Ground Communications. The VTUAV system ground communications will:
(a) Use USN/USMC standard tactical communications equipment and procedures for ground VTUAV components (Threshold).
(b) Provide two UHF radios and two VHF radios (Threshold)/two UHF radios, two VHF radios and one HF radio (Objective). The UHF/VHF/HF VTUAV system communications capability must be digital data capable and interface with selected standard DoD C4I systems, architectures, and protocols (Threshold). The radios should be completely integrated into the Inter-communications System (ICS) of the GCS (Threshold).
(c) Ensure all radio and telephone communications are interoperable with National Security Agency approved encryption systems (Threshold).
(d) Ensure NRT video is exported to other video systems (Threshold).
(2) Data Link. The VTUAV system data links between GCS/RDT and AV must be compatible with the Ku-Band digital data link established for the system, Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL), (12.0 to 18.0 GHz)(Threshold). The data link should provide redundancy for AV Command and Control (C2)(Objective), be electronically steerable, support multiple frequencies and multiple full-duplex channels simultaneously, be anti-jam with low probability of intercept, be capable of supporting both unidirectional and omni-directional communications simultaneously, and support simultaneous communication with two AVs in different quadrants of the sky at the same time (Objective). Further, the VTUAV system data link must:
(a) Be submitted to, and approved by, the Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Center (Threshold).
(b) Provide at least 150 nm radius of operation (LOS permitting) from controlling GCS to AV (and vice versa) without relay from other airborne or surface relay antennae (Threshold).
(c) With the use of no more than two relay stations (airborne or surface), provide a 250 nm radius of operation from controlling GCS to AV and vice versa (Objective).
(d) Allow for future growth to SATCOM data link, to be determined (TBD)(Objective).
(e) Not create mutual interference with other friendly electronic systems to the level they are not usable (Threshold).
(f) Be capable of simultaneous transmission of command up-link and reception of sensors/AV telemetry downlink using discrete, selectable frequencies (Threshold).
(g) Provide data distribution (imagery and system data) from the AV to the VTUAV GCS and RDT (Threshold), via discrete and selectable frequencies and also provide video to "on the move" C2 nodes (e.g. battle command vehicles and C2 helicopters with compatible capabilities) (Objective).
g. Transportation and Basing. The VTUAV system must be sea, ground, and air transportable.
(1) The VTUAV system will be incorporated within existing ship's spaces. Stowage and transportation aboard ships will utilize existing ship's equipment (Threshold).
(2) The VTUAV system will be capable of being stowed, serviced, prepared for flight and launched within the footprint of a standard, single spot flight deck certified for SH-60 launch and recovery (non-Recovery, Assist, Secure, and Traverse system (RAST))
(3) The VTUAV system will be capable of being stowed in weather-tight containers, for stowage in a modular installation on ship weather decks (Threshold).
(4) The land-based GCS and GDT must fit in High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) with standard shelters and trailer(s) with sufficient room remaining for the operators combat equipment and sufficient Class IX (repair parts) supplies to support a 72 hour operating period (Threshold). The remainder of the land-based VTUAV system will use standard mobility assets to satisfy this requirement (Objective).
(5) The VTUAV system must be capable of being configured for (or deconfigured from) sea, ground, or air transport in 2 hours or less (Threshold)/1 hour or less (Objective).
(6) Each component of the VTUAV system must be C-130 (Threshold) air transportable and drive-on/drive-off capable when configured for land transport and loaded on its HMMWV/trailer transportation vehicles (Threshold). Each component of the VTUAV system must be capable of being transported via vertical lift on board delivery by current and future vertical lift platforms.
h. Standardization, Interoperability, and Commonality
(1) Joint Use, Interoperability, and NATO cross-servicing. The VTUAV system:
(a) Must be compatible with existing C4I systems and equipment (Threshold).
(b) Must be interoperable with other U.S. and Allied nations' functionally related C4I systems and equipment (Objective).
(c) Must conform to the following message standards:
1 Variable Message Format (VMF) Technical
Interface Design Plan-Test Edition (TIPD-TE) (Threshold)/all other J-series messages to include link-16 (Objective).
2 Joint Publications 6-04 and 3-56.24, U.S. Message Text Formats (Threshold).
(d) Any material solution will comply with Joint Technical Architecture (JTA) standards.
(2) Energy Standardization and Efficiency Needs
(a) Fuel. The VTUAV system must operate using JP-5 and JP-8 (Threshold/KPP)/JP-5, JP-8, and diesel (Objective).
(b) Electrical Power. VTUAV system ground components must be compatible with standard electrical power available within the DoD family of mobile electric power sources. The system must be capable of restoring power in sufficient time to avoid loss of mission critical data or loss of AV control during intermittent power outages. The system will not rely on the prime movers as a primary power source; however, prime movers may be used as an emergency or backup power source. Operators will be able to adapt the system to standard worldwide commercial alternating current power (120 volts/60 hertz and 220 volts/50 hertz). VTUAV systems deployed aboard ships must be capable of using ship's power or deck edge power, with an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) as the backup power supply (Threshold).
i. Geospatial Information and Services (GS&I). TCS, as the VTUAV system control element, shall provide the DoD and Service mapping, charting and geodesy support requirements.
j. Security. The VTUAV system must comply with current security requirements and be capable of evolving to meet state-of-the-art technological advances designed to protect information from unwanted exploitation as imposed by national, DoD, and joint policy. The VTUAV system must be protected from an Information Systems Security (INFOSEC) perspective, which would include, but not be limited to, such services as confidentiality, availability, and integrity of information that is either processed, stored, or transmitted.
k. Environmental Support. The VTUAV system shall be capable of receiving standard meteorological information from the appropriate aviation command element or ship's weather department (Threshold).
6. Force Structure
a. USMC. Requires eleven VTUAV systems (four AVs per system) to meet pre-positioning, war reserve, and expeditionary force requirements. Distribution will be as follows:
VMU-1 will have four systems.
VMU-2 will have four systems.
Maritime Pre-positioned Ships will have three systems.
(1) USMC Land-based VTUAV System. Consists of:
(a) Four AVs.
(b) Air vehicle SE as required.
(c) Four MMPs as defined in this ORD.
(d) Two land-based data link systems consisting of a man-portable or trailer-portable antenna(s), receiver(s), transmitter(s), and cabling required to connect the data link system to the GCS.
(e) Two land-based GCSs (TCS core software) with Data Control Modules (DCM), consisting of a HMMWV portable shelter to house the host computers of the TCS software and a fully integrated communications suite for AV C2. The communications suite consists of the radio assets listed in this ORD and integrates the radios with the ICS to enable the operators to select either radio or ICS communications on the same system.
(f) Two RDTs (TCS core software).
(g) Additional mission specific MMPs (as required).
b. USN. Initially requires twelve VTUAV systems, plus additional VTUAV systems based upon an Analysis of Requirements for VTUAV systems. The TCS Shipboard Integration Study will determine the number of ships and level of capability/interoperability required for TCS integration. The USN Sea-based VTUAV System will consist of:
(1) The same numbers of AVs, air vehicle SE and MMPs as the USMC VTUAV land-based system, and any additional AVs to meet specific mission requirements.
(2) One land-based data link system.
(3) One sea-based data link system consisting of the antenna(s), receiver(s), transmitter(s), and cabling compatible with all air capable ships.
(4) One land-based GCS (TCS core software) with DCMs.
(5) One sea-based GCS (TCS core software) with DCMs consisting of two or more racks of computer equipment to be mounted/installed aboard the ship.
(6) Two RDTs (TCS core software).
(7) Additional mission specific MMPs (as required).
c. U.S. Army. The Army may require a VTUAV system(s) to meet projected future Corps and Division TUAV requirements.
d. Training. Additional systems required to support the Joint DoD UAV Training Center will be identified at a later date.
7. Schedule Considerations
a. IOC. IOC is achieved after each Service has fielded one production representative system with Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) procurement (training, spares, technical publications) in place and developmental and operational testing completed. The level of performance necessary to achieve IOC requires one system in a final configuration with operators and maintenance personnel trained and initial spares with interim repair support in place.
(1) IOC. Fourth Quarter, FY03.
(2) Impact if IOC is Not Met. The Pioneer UAV system will require a substantial and costly service life extension if a suitable replacement is not fielded. Also, a robust UAV system capable of supporting tactical commanders with reliable, dedicated, and organic intelligence gathering capability will be delayed.
b. FOC. FOC will be achieved when all maintenance and repair support, software support, test equipment and spares are in place and the systems are effectively employable.
(1) FOC. Third Quarter, FY05.
(2) Impact if FOC is Not Met. Same as the IOC rationale.