The Intelligence Community (IC) has been implementing substantial change in every dimension of its business. Some of these re- engineering efforts are based on IC-wide task force analyses of internal processes; others are in response to the recent geo-strategic and technologic changes in the national and international environment. Many of the examples show the IC to be forward-leaning and willing to take bold steps away from the limitations of the past. Agencies have recognized the need to change the way they relate to and understand traditional and emerging customers as shown in the specific examples below. IC and agency-specific process reinvention efforts follow, listed under the heading Process Change. The following list of reinvention steps are part of the IC's effort to forge a mix of analytical, collection, and support resources. These resources will meet the challenges of evolving customer needs within severely limited budget constraints.
The Central Imagery Office (CIO) was established as a joint DOD-IC organization in 1992 to provide responsive support to DOD, the IC, other federal government departments and agencies, and the civil sector. It is charged with transforming the frag-mented imagery pieces into an integrated United States Imagery System. To that end, the CIO is developing an imagery architecture to help balance capabilities and capacities across all elements of the imagery cycle. It will also be used to support imagery use at all operational levels.
The Classification Review Task Force (CRTF), led by the CIO, is a zero- based review of security policy for all national imagery and imagery- derived information. The goal of CRTF is to develop imagery security policy that supports maximum use of imagery by customers while protecting truly sensitive sources and methods.
The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) has taken a leadership role in using new technologies to support customers. The Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communi-cations System (JWICS) and the Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System (JDISS) are widely recognized as leading- edge applications of information technology. These technologies have been major catalysts in the expanding customer support relationship with the United Nations and its peacekeeping activities.
The Department of Energy Office of Intelligence has established a process of designating intelligence representatives to each of the functional areas in the department. This ensures timely and accurate identification of the customers' needs and focused responses.
The Treasury's Office of Intelligence Support has substantially expanded its customer base without an increase in resources. The office is now servicing officials in the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the Office of Thrift Supervision.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is aggressively pursuing better access to its customers through improving reporting formats and the integration of senior agency representatives and analysts in customer activities. Formats for reporting range from the highly technical report (which moves from producer to consumer in a matter of seconds) to the very detailed and focused International Trade and Finance Summary.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), using off-the-shelf technology, developed a PC-based remote publishing system. This system enabled the CIA to support President-elect Clinton and Vice President-elect Gore with full scale daily intelligence briefings in Little Rock, Arkansas, and at other locations during the transition period. CIA has reduced to two the number of hardcover publications sent to consumers. At the same time, desktop publishing has allowed offices to tailor products for consumers, resulting in better service at no extra cost and in a very timely manner. Also, the downgrading and release of agency documents of historical interest has been accelerated. Over 200 CIA personnel are serving in customer organizations, including National Programs, as intelligence representatives, advisers, and staff support personnel. The CIA has also established an Associate Deputy Director for Operations for Military Affairs to better coordinate support and collaboration with military customers. The CIA also has taken steps to either declassify or lower the controlling caveats on several sectors of its reporting for use by military and regulatory/enforcement customers.
As a part of the effort to refocus its activities from Cold War targets to the emerging priority issues of the 1990s, the CIA is providing increasing support to government organizations. These organizations include the Departments of Commerce, Agriculture, and Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency, as well as to multilateral bodies such as the United Nations. That support includes, among other things, information on the environment, including hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, floods, and oil spills proliferation, and economic and competitiveness issues. The private sector also benefits from some of that information. For example, the foreign public media information collected by CIA provides a growing volume of highly valuable information not only to government organizations but to the private sector via Commerce's National Technical Information Service as well. This includes information on trade policy, economic and technological competitive-ness, environmental pollution, and other important issues. The CIA produces 25,000 copies of the World Factbook, which has become an important source of basic information to other U.S. government agencies and private sector businesses. The Government Printing Office routinely sells some 5,000 copies of each edition at $25 each. In addition, several private firms buy the book and then convert it to CD- ROM for sale to their customers. Because of their efforts, it is the ninth most popular CD in the world.
Army intelligence will build and maintain the ARGUS database to further the Central MASINT (measurement and signature intelligence) Office mission to interconnect all DOD and national intelligence interests into a single common and unified MASINT database with various levels of access. Community members will have access to MASINT requirements and the collections made against them with the option to select specific hardcopy or tapes. ARGUS will be available in fiscal 1998. The Army's automated intelligence production management system is being expanded by DIA into a future Department of Defense intelligence information management system that has broader IC application.
Process Change -- The Community
The Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) is implementing an improved IC resource management system that links needs to resources using a four-step process improvement plan. The four major components of this plan are:
The following lists some examples of IC initiatives designed to bolster an already growing spirit of cooperation within the IC:
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has implemented the National Security Threat List (NSTL) concept for prioritizing counterintelligence targets. The NSTL, now widely adopted throughout the counterintelligence community, reinvented the approach to counterintelligence as a result of world changes and in anticipation of the changing needs of the Community. The Counterintelligence Representative to the National Security Council also was recently revalidated by the President.
In addressing the accelerating volume of available information, the Army's Project PATHFINDER provides a collection of analytical tools that helps the user navigate through voluminous data and accomplish routine tasks significantly faster (days vs. weeks) and with greater accuracy. To date, Project PATHFINDER is used by over 200 analysts in 18 government agencies.
To avoid unnecessary duplication among the IC's scheduled intelligence products, the National Intelligence Producers Board (NIPB) has initiated joint reviews of annual production agendas. The NIPB will also hold quarterly follow-up reviews to accommodate changes in the production plans. In addition, the production community is making greater use of the 'lead agency' concept to reduce duplication and orchestrate current intelligence support on selected problems and issues.
A DCI Environmental Task Force was created to expose key non- intelligence elements of the government and 70 prominent environmental scientists to intelligence collection capabilities. It was also to test the applicability of these capabilities to environmental issues. The task force completed its interim report in May 1993. The report states that a large number of assets have the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the environment.
CIA, DIA, and NSA recently took a major step forward in breaking down a significant barrier to Community coordination by establishing a policy of employee badge reciprocity. Employees can now work with their counterparts and attend confer-ences and training in one another's facilities without the hindrance of redundant security processing. CIA, DIA, and NSA have also established a Rotational Exchange Program to foster career development of intelligence officers by providing rotational assignment opportunities within the IC.
NSA, DIA, CIA and the Services are now jointly manning the National Military Joint Intelligence Center. This promotes better coordination of IC-wide support to national contingency and crisis operations and eliminates redundant watch operations.
The DCI Interagency Balkan Task Force is an excellent example of how the IC's resources can be brought together in support of a foreign policy crisis. The Task Force has been in existence since June 1992, and includes representatives from CIA, DIA, NSA, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). By bringing together collectors, intelligence analysts, and policy analysts, the task force provides the senior policymaker with one-stop shopping when requesting IC assessment on various U.S. policy initiatives or an enhanced IC collection effort against a particular target.
DIA/GDIP. The Director of DIA, as the program manager of the General Defense Intelligence Program (GDIP), is striving to create a functional, coherent enterprise that will promote increased integration between budgets and organizational jurisdictions. Services and activities within the GDIP are realigning and reorganizing activities across the board.
In DIA, National Military Centers for collection, production, and infrastructure have been created. These organizations will have functional issue managers that will span the GDIP and align with the services, which will have national centers on ground, maritime, and aerospace issues. The reorganization of DIA has been described as a cultural change. The most comprehensive reorganization of DIA since the end of the Cold War, it deals with the 'spiritual aspects' of the organization rather than merely shifting office symbols. The overall objectives were to reduce the ratio of support positions to substantive positions to 25:75, reduce management positions by 30 percent, restructure the organization along functional lines, enhance responsiveness to military operational requirements, and expand the organization's focus on IC management issues. Resources of the Unified and Specified Command Joint Intelligence Centers have been realigned to make them more responsive to a different world with changing requirements. As a result, nearly 500 billets were realigned and some 300 reduced.
CIA. CIA has merged four components in the Directorate of Operations into two. The merger of the Directorate of Science and Technology Offices of SIGINT Operations and Special Projects is under way. Implementation plans are being drawn up to merge the Office of Imagery Analysis/ Directorate of Intelligence into the National Photographic Interpretation Center.
Approximately one-third of CIA's components have undergone major restructuring over the past three years. Nine have experienced the loss of one or more divisions or groups. Ten others have comprehensively reorganized to better align capabilities and services with changing demands. Reorganizations, along with a general search for efficiencies and flexibility, permitted reduction of management layering. The Directorate of Intelligence, for example, has eliminated more than 15 percent of its management positions since 1991.
In another example, a division within the Directorate of Operations reorganized itself around six key strategic issues and integrated collectors and analysts in a successful effort to improve service to the customer. Central to the process was an in-depth interactive dialogue with all of its customers and an exhaustive analysis of work flow, variances, and quality of work life. The goal was to design an organization that is quality oriented and responsive to customer needs, and provides a strong focus for job satisfaction and challenge to its personnel. In the Office of Leadership Analysis in the Directorate of Intelligence, the wiring diagram of the organization was symbolically destroyed at an all-hands meeting. A task force of employees representing all levels and all disciplines developed a process to establish ongoing reinvention as customers' needs and demands change, downsizing continues, and resources are realigned.
In the Office of Information Technology, 99 out of 100 recommendations made by 18 Quality Teams were adopted. This resulted in savings and cost avoidance of 61 staff labor-years and $3.5 million.
The CIA has developed the framework for a commercial credit card program designed to simplify small purchase procedures by offering an alternative to the use of purchase orders, delivery orders, blanket purchase agreements, etc. In addition to reducing the administrative costs, the program will result in less paperwork and improve lead times.
NSA. NSA has embraced the Total Quality Management (TQM) process since the late 1980s. Over 100 teams have yielded the following improvements:
Navy. The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) has taken considerable strides in consolidating and streamlining its intelligence processes. Since January 1993, the Naval Intelligence Command has been eliminated, thus creating a more directly responsive organization. ONI has reorganized into eight major directorates, each having direct access to the Director of Naval Intelligence. All analytical efforts are now contained within one organization. General military intelligence and scientific and technical intelligence elements have been merged. By 1994, ONI will have moved into the new National Maritime Intelligence Center in Suitland, Maryland, along with elements from the Coast Guard and Marine Corps.
DOE.The Department of Energy (DOE) is establishing on-line, secure computer-based communications between its headquarters and nine DOE national laboratories. This vastly improves the timeliness and comprehensiveness of foreign intelligence available at the organizations.
Department of State. The Bureau of Intelligence and Research's (INR's) TIPOFF program uses sensitive intelligence to advise law enforcement and intelligence agencies that suspected terrorists have been detected at U.S. ports of entry. Since TIPOFF first began providing records to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) in June 1991, 50 suspected terrorists have been detected arriving at U.S. ports, where INS agents were able to take appropriate action.
Intelligence Community Reinvention
Foreign Language Laboratories. Under sponsorship of the DCI Foreign Language Committee, the Community is reinventing foreign language training and testing process to share resources and development costs across Federal language schools, user intelligence organizations, and academia. The Center for Advancement of Language Learning has initiated a standardized proficiency testing plan and coordinates development of teaching materials for seldom-taught languages such as Arabic, Korean, Cantonese and Serno-Croatian. CMS led the quick-reaction development of tools for English-only speakers to work with Chinese-only speaking aliens in support of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the U.S. Coast Guard. The Federal Language Training Laboratory of CIA's Office of Training and Education has developed interactive video courses in Spanish and Russian and is developing French and Arabic courseware.
TIPSTER Text Program. This lab is working to better serve the needs of its customer--the intelligence analyst. It aims to significantly speed the process of finding data (for example, background information on a current crisis) from a massive library of multilingual, digitized textual material. The tools include software systems for routing messages, systems for document retrieval from large archival storage, and information extraction systems that automatically scan textual data and place specified information into standardized data structures.
Support to the Combat Operator. This NSA lab examines, documents, and improves signals intelligence (SIGINT) capabilities to provide real-time information to the combat operator. Working directly with pilots, aircrew, and other combat operators, it will develop detailed information requirements profiles for different combat missions. This will allow the operational military and the IC to determine how to best use SIGINT information to enhance overall combat effectiveness.
Multi-functional Maintenance Teams. This NSA lab is developing programs to cross-train maintenance workers so that one worker may now do what used to take two (or more). In addition, the lab will test a 'building manager' approach to provide self-directed teams to each of NSA's six buildings. The goal is to respond to customer requests faster, establish better customer relations, and provide more personalized service.