E-COMMERCE AT THE GRASS ROOTS:

IMPLICATIONS OF A “WIRED” CITIZENRY IN
DEVELOPING NATIONS

30 June 2000

Prepared for the

NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE COUNCIL

By

BOOZ·ALLEN & HAMILTON

3190 Fairview Park Drive

Falls Church, Virginia 22042

Key Judgments

The widespread availability of Internet access is certain to have significant effects on the developing world, most of them positive. Economics and politics depend completely on the transmission or exchange of information. The introduction of a major new information medium that ultimately reaches almost universally down to the local level will have a profound effect on local economic and political activity. We are seeing this phenomenon now in the developed countries. We will begin soon to see the effects of Internet availability in the developing world as well.

The following are the major effects anticipated on local economic and political activity in developing nations—

General

Economic Effects Political Effects

Table of Contents

Page
Key Judgments........................................................................................................................................ i

Table of Contents....................................................................................................................................iv

Scope and Research Note................................................................................................................... v

I.                    Prospects for Internet Availability and Usage in Developing Nations........................ I-1

A.  Assumptions on Internet Availability.............................................................................................. I-2

B.  Modes of Internet Usage................................................................................................................ I-4

C.  Trust, Credit, and Law.................................................................................................................... I-7

D.  Prospects for Secure Communications....................................................................................... I-8

E.  The Internet as a Tool for Preserving the Status Quo................................................................. I-9

II.                 Effects of Widespread Internet Availability on

Local-level Economics........................................................................................................................ II-1

A.  Local Market Liquidity and Efficiency..................................................................................... .....II-2

B.  The Agricultural Economy............................................................................................................. II-8

C.  Local-level Entrepreneurship..................................................................................................... ..II-12

D.  Cartels, Barriers to Entry, Restraint of Trade.................................................................. ........ ..II-15

E.  Capital Accumulation, Investment, and Credit................................................................ .......... II-18

F.  Employment Patterns and Labor Migration..................................................................... ......... II-23

G.  Taxation, Regulation, and Licensing................................................................................ ......... II-27

H.  Informal vs. Declared Business Activity........................................................................... ......... II-31

I.  Crime and Corruption.......................................................................................................... ......... II-34

III.               Effects of Widespread Internet Availability on

Local-level Politics................................................................................................................... ......... III-1

A.  Increased Access to News and Information.................................................................... ......... III-2

B.  Local Political Activity.................................................................................................................. III-5

C.  Connectivity with Expatriates and Distant Domestic Groups................................................. III-8

D.  Adroit Internet Use by Governing Political Powers.................................................................. III-11

Scope and Research Note

This paper postulates economic and political effects of widespread Internet availability at the local level in selected countries and regions of the developing world. It addresses the changes in local economic and political activity that are likely or at least possible once large numbers of people obtain Internet access.

Several topics lie outside the scope of this paper—

It is, of course, difficult to research the future. The study team found virtually no published material that directly addressed the topics within the paper’s scope. Our research plan included the following steps— Subsequent to the research phase, a substantial part of the work for the paper consisted of a disciplined projective analytical process, focused on identifying proximate and second-order effects on local economics and politics of widespread Internet access in the countries under study.

The literary style of this paper is somewhat unusual, consisting almost entirely of “bullet” paragraphs, grouped under topical headings. The scope of the paper is broad, covering a wide range of long-term economic and political developments in five major geographic areas. The bullet format was used to highlight and encapsulate a wide variety of topics as efficiently and clearly as possible. Weaving a narrative around these major points would probably have obscured them to some degree and would have made for a much longer paper.

I. Prospects for Internet Availability and Usage
in Developing Nations

The thrust of this paper is to assess the long-term economic and political impacts of widespread Internet use on specified, high-interest countries and regions. To lay a proper foundation, however, certain assumptions must be made and generalizations offered that will set the terms for the geographically specific projections. These factors fall into several categories, discussed at length in the sections that follow—

A. Assumptions on Internet Availability

A number of assumptions underlie the prospective analysis that comprises the main body of this paper—

 B. Modes of Internet Usage

There are several ways in which the Internet can be used as a communications medium, and these modes will find a variety of applications and adaptations in developing countries. In view of the rapid advance of Internet technology, it is likely that these modes of usage will evolve significantly over the next two decades, new modes will probably be introduced, and perhaps some present usage modes will become obsolete.

Subject to that caveat, the following modes of Internet usage are now available in the developed world and are postulated to be the primary modes of usage that will be used in developing countries over the coming two decades. The key, basic attributes of each mode are noted briefly, as they would apply in developing countries.

C. Trust, Credit, and Law

 

As important as commercial trust, credit instruments, and contract or consumer law may be to e-commerce in the developed world, we must avoid mirror-imaging these standards and expectations when postulating the growth of e-commerce in developing countries.

Most of any commercial process involves the acquisition or exchange of information. The actual exchange of money for delivery of goods is only the final step in this informational process. Internet connectivity devoid of any provision for supporting financial transactions can still facilitate commercial activity: vendors can advertise goods for sale, shoppers can find information on price and availability of goods, terms can be negotiated, and arrangements for payment and delivery can be made. Consider the similarity to the telephone: only a fraction of the telephone traffic between businesses or between a business and the public involves actual transactions. Most traffic involves the exchange of information.

Thus, there need not be any provision for trust, credit, or law at all for widespread Internet availability still to have a profound beneficial effect on economic activity at the local level in developing countries.

As undeveloped as credit instruments and contract law may be in the countries and regions under study, nevertheless the Internet itself may be a vehicle for the introduction of certain advances in these areas.

A potentially significant development in this field is the advent of digital money. Today, the technology, associated banking infrastructure, and legalities are still embryonic, even in the developed countries. It is premature to project the ready availability of digital money in the developing world within the time horizon of this paper, but this is not to preclude unforeseen technological advances that bring it about sooner than expected. Even when (if) the use of digital money becomes relatively common, its use at the person-to-person or small business level would no doubt remain futuristic.
 
 

D. Prospects for Secure Communications


Another systemic factor that will play a role in Internet usage in the developing world is the increasing availability of technology—typically encryption—that can make communications unreadable by outside parties. Even today, strong encryption programs (PGP, for example[1]) are universally available free or at low cost.

In commercial terms, the assurance of communications privacy will facilitate the use of Internet communications for business negotiations and other sensitive matters, but perhaps more important at the local level, it will keep government and entrenched interests from monitoring informal or underground economic activity.

In political terms, private communications among opposition, dissident, or rebellious political elements will complicate the monitoring task of governments, political police, and dominant political parties.

Encryption aside, the growing volume of Internet traffic in developing countries will have much the same effect on economic and political situations. Local authorities, much less entrenched local business interests, will have little ability to intercept and monitor even unencrypted Internet traffic, trying to identify those few messages that contain pertinent information. Except in extraordinary circumstances, capabilities for sophisticated cryptanalysis or even traffic analysis that might exist in national governments will not be applied to monitoring diffuse economic and political activity in the thousands of localities in each country.
 

E. The Internet as a Tool for Preserving the Status Quo

 

As suggested in the foregoing sections, the Internet has vast potential for enabling people in the developing world to engage in freer local economic and political activity, with far-reaching implications at the macroeconomic and national political levels. This is by no means a one-way street, however. Entrenched economic and political interests will be able to use the Internet as a tool for maintaining their dominant positions, especially because they typically command greater resources and coercive authority. Probably the most powerful, the potential to flood Internet news and information channels with material that reflects a government’s position on issues.

In addition to these means of defending entrenched interests, local economic or political entities in many developing countries would face few restraints on the use of coercive measures, such as—

II. Effects of Widespread Internet Availability

on Local-level Economics

The arrival of widespread Internet service in developing nations will be a catalyst for productive economic activity and more rapid growth. A key component of economic activity, in developing countries as elsewhere, is information. Information on the availability, attributes, and prices of goods and services must be exchanged before any physical transaction can take place. The ready availability of such information is an important factor in how rapidly economies develop. The Internet will be an important new vehicle by which economic information is exchanged in the developing world.

It is important, however, to resist excessive optimism. Enhanced opportunities for communication alone will not overcome cultural obstacles, oppressive governments, infrastructure shortfalls, ethnic bitterness, poor nutrition, ill health, or many of the other factors that stand in the way of economic progress in the developing world. Most of the events and trends postulated in this section are indeed expected to be positive, but the outlook must be tempered by a realistic recognition of the limiting factors also at work in the developing world.

In this section of the paper, we will consider the likely effects of Internet availability on a variety of economic phenomena that take place at the local level. The first segment under each topic will address phenomena that are likely to be universal or at least common. Following that initial segment, specific comments will be offered concerning the five countries and regions under consideration: Sub-Saharan Africa, China, Russia, India, and four selected states in Latin America: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Colombia, and Ecuador.[2]

The economic phenomena to be addressed are the following, all with a focus on the local level—

A. Internet Effects: Local Market Liquidity and Efficiency

Let us focus first on the local producer of goods, whether a farmer growing crops for sale, or a small-scale handicrafter or manufacturer. In traditional economic arrangements, local producers have few options when it comes to selling their goods: they can sell them at retail to passers-by or in a local market, or they can sell them at wholesale to a middleman. The middleman will pass the goods onward, often through several sets of hands, transporting them to city markets or in some cases for export.

These traditional economic outlets essentially force the local producer to accept whatever prices are offered. The farmer cannot typically take time out from his labors to carry produce to a distant city for a better price, whereas the handicrafter or manufacturer will have filled the needs of his neighbors for his product and requires access to more distant buyers.

As maligned as they often are, local middlemen perform an essential service, for which they are entitled to payment. They purchase, aggregate, transport, and resell the goods of the producers. It is typical, however, for middlemen to take advantage of the dependence of local producers on their services—and of their access to information on supply, demand, and pricing—to pay only a pittance for the producer’s goods, while making a markup of several hundred percent.

How will these traditional market relationships change once access to the Internet becomes widespread in these areas? Several major effects can be postulated—

We will next examine how these postulated effects of Internet availability on local market liquidity and efficiency are likely to apply in the cases of the countries and regions under study.

Sub-Saharan Africa

China
Russia India Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador
B. Internet Effects: The Agricultural Economy

In addition to the generalized effects on market efficiency postulated in Section A, widespread Internet availability will have important effects on agriculture in the developing world. Because agriculture typically accounts for more than half of Gross Domestic Product, and often provides the livelihood for as much as 80 percent of the population in developing countries, the sector deserves a closer look in this paper.

The effects of Internet availability on agriculture in the developing world are likely to include the following—

The outlook for the development of the agricultural economy as Internet availability proliferates in the countries under study is as follows—

Sub-Saharan Africa

China Russia
India
Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador
C. Internet Effects: Local-level Entrepreneurship

Widespread Internet availability will act as a catalyst for entrepreneurship at the local level in developing economies. In many cases, the Internet eases entry into new business by reducing the need for formal stores, whereas customers may be found—even worldwide—relatively cheaply. The formation of new businesses is implied in many of the changes discussed in this paper, but here are several focused points—

China Russia India Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador
 D. Internet Effects: Cartels, Barriers to Entry, Restraint of Trade

Many local businesses and related government entities in the developing world will not welcome the widespread availability of the Internet. Commonly, preexisting businesses and government offices derive a large part of their livelihood from limiting the entry of new businesses into the marketplace, either to protect market-dominant business positions or to extract fees and favors from would-be entrepreneurs who need official permission to operate. This status quo-oriented situation will tend to unravel as entrepreneurs gain access to the Internet.

The following dynamics can be expected in an environment of widespread Internet access—

The outlook for changes in barriers to business entry and the operation of business cartels in an environment of widespread Internet availability in the countries or regions of interest is as follows—

China

Russia Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador

E. Internet Effects: Capital Accumulation, Investment, and Credit

Widespread availability of Internet access in developing countries will have significant effects on the local-level accumulation and effective placement of capital for investment. Likewise, credit will become increasingly available at manageable interest rates for use by local businesses. Some of these effects will simply be a result of rising levels of income and wealth facilitated by Internet access itself, but there will be structural changes as well. These include the following— The outlook for the growth of capital accumulation, investment, and credit in an environment of widespread Internet availability in the countries or regions of interest is as follows—

Sub-Saharan Africa

China Russia
India
Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador

F. Internet Effects: Employment Patterns and Labor Migration

Widespread availability of the Internet will have important, beneficial effects on employment patterns and labor migration in the developing countries. The decentralized nature of the Internet will make more work opportunities available in outlying and rural areas, while improved information flows will help in the rational placement of labor. In the short term, however, some of the efficiencies that the Internet will bring about will put some people out of work even while it provides employment for others. Specific effects on local-level labor markets in the developing world include— The outlook for employment patterns and labor migration in an environment of widespread Internet availability in the countries or regions of interest is as follows—

Sub-Saharan Africa

China Russia India
Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador
 G. Internet Effects: Taxation, Regulation, and Licensing

The low visibility of Internet transactions in developing countries will complicate the task of governments as they try to impose taxes, administer regulations, and require licenses for local economic activities. Because each of these functions slows or obstructs business activities, one result will be a freer economy and more rapid economic growth. Government revenues—both formal fees and informal bribes—will suffer setbacks. Specific effects are likely to include the following—

The outlook for government taxation, regulation, and licensing of local business transactions in an environment of widespread Internet availability in the countries or regions of interest is as follows—

China

Russia India

H. Internet Effects: Informal vs. Declared Business Activity

In the developed world, “black market” is generally a pejorative term that conjures images of illicit trafficking in dangerous products or nefarious services. When discussing developing countries, however, the more neutral term “informal economy” is more useful. A virtually universal attribute of developing countries is their policy of exercising state control and revenue extortion over economic activity down to very local levels. If individuals, farmers, and local businesses are to thrive—and in some cases survive at all—they must find ways to avoid or minimize government interference in their economic activities. Thus there arises widespread phenomenon of carrying on economic activity informally, without declaring its existence to government authorities.

As individuals, farmers, and local businesses gain Internet access, their ability to carry on informal economic activity will be affected in the following ways—

The outlook for the evolution of informal vs. formal economic activity in an environment of widespread Internet availability in the countries or regions of interest is as follows—

China

Russia India Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador

I. Internet Effects: Crime and Corruption

Most of the effects of widespread Internet access postulated above have been positive, as greater freedom and availability of communication stimulate economic growth. The Internet will also be a tool for use by criminals and criminal enterprises, especially in developing countries with weak or corrupt law enforcement. As noted earlier, however, the effect on official corruption is likely to be somewhat favorable. The following phenomena can be anticipated— The outlook for the evolution of crime and corruption in an environment of widespread Internet availability in the countries or regions of interest is as follows—

China

Russia India
Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador
III. Effects of Widespread Internet Availability

on Local-level Politics

Any political process depends on communication, whatever the form of government. The Internet is a vehicle for interactive communication that promises to reach local levels in developing countries, to a degree without precedent or parallel. As Internet access becomes widespread, numerous effects on the political process can be postulated. Most of these effects will be favorable, leading to greater individual freedom and limitations on governmental power.

As in the case of the Internet’s effect on local-level economic activity in the developing world, it is easy to focus on the anticipated positive effects while slighting the negative. Governments are universally intent on retaining power, and in developing countries the restraints on their efforts to do so by authoritarian means are weak indeed. At the same time, governments typically possess extensive resources to employ in protecting their power. The advent of Internet access at the local level in the developing world will be a positive factor politically, but it will not by itself bring about individual liberty or democratic government.

The postulated political effects of widespread Internet availability at the local level can be grouped under four categories, and are discussed at length in the following sections—

A. Internet Effects: Increased Access to News and Information

A primary means by which oppressive governments have maintained their grip on power has been their control over what information the populace has about domestic and foreign conditions and events. The widespread availability of the Internet will compromise this control, in some cases destroying it altogether. A number of politically important dynamics can be expected, such as—

The outlook for the effect on local politics of Internet-borne news and information in the countries or regions of interest is as follows—

China

Russia
India
Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador

B. Internet Effects: Local Political Activity

Interactive communications via the Internet—beyond the realm of news concerning events and conditions—will have a significant effect on local political activity in many developing countries. No longer will recruitment, organizing, and fundraising depend on face-to-face contact. Patterns of local political activity in an environment of widespread Internet access are likely to assume some of the following shapes— The outlook for the effect on local politics of localized interactive communication via the Internet in the countries or regions of interest is as follows—

China

Russia India Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador

C. Internet Effects: Connectivity with Expatriates and Distant Domestic Groups

Advanced or dissident political thinking in developing countries often takes place among groups living abroad, or among people living in the capital city or in a particular region of the country. The communication of their ideas and political programs to the local level has always been attenuated or even made impossible by the distances involved and the lack of rapid, economical communication. Widespread availability of the Internet will change that. The following are some of the effects that can be postulated with some confidence— The outlook for the effect on local politics of communication with expatriate or distant domestic dissidents via the Internet in the countries or regions of interest is as follows—

China

Russia India Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and El Salvador

D. Internet Effects: Adroit Internet Use by Governing Political Powers

Established economic interests may be slow to take coercive action against Internet use by upstart competitors, but governments that are concerned about their domestic security situation are unlikely to spare such an effort or expense. There are a number of ways in which oppressive governments could combat the freedom of expression—and political threat—posed by widespread dissident use of the Internet. The following are some patterns of activity that may arise— The outlook for the effect on local politics of the adroit use of the Internet by existing political powers in the five countries or regions of interest is as follows—

China

Russia
India
Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, El Salvador



[1] Free download is available through www.pgp.com
[2] In some cases, no significant data was available concerning a specific country or region under study.
[3] Interview with Robert Houdek, National Intelligence Officer for Africa, 2 June 2000.
[4] “The Internet and Poverty,” Panos Media Briefing No. 28, April 1998, accessed 13 June 2000 at www.oneworld.org
[5] "Paging the PRC," China Business Review, 2 July 1999.
[6] "Ericsson To Sell Web Phones In China," Muzi Net Lateline, accessed 24 April 2000 at [email protected]
[7] “Virtual Commerce in Russia,” Aport 2000, accessed 31 May 2000 at www.aport-ru.com
[8] Denise Albrighton, “Obstacles to Money-Making on the Web Remain,” St. Petersburg Times, 18 April 2000.
[9] Rod Pounsett, “Russians Need the Internet,” Russia Today, 23 February 1999, accessed 31 May 2000 at www.russiatoday.com
[10] See for example Kenneth J. Cooper, “How India Holds Itself Back,” Washington Post, 30 May 1999, p. B2.
[11] Interview with Carol Charles, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1 June 2000.
[12] Carol Charles, “Enabling E-Commerce in India,” Global Information Infrastructure Commission, November 1999, p. 16.
[13] Interview with Mark Falcoff, American Enterprise Institute, 5 June 2000.
[14] Ditty Deamer, "Government-Run Stores Can't Compete," in China Free Markets: Farmer's Markets, June 1999, accessed June 2000 at www.saturdaymarket.com/chinaveg
[15] Interview with William McHenry, op. cit.
[16] Celia W. Dugger, “Connecting Rural India to the World,” New York Times, 28 May 2000, p. 10.
[17] Stefan Whitney, "What's That Next to the Bok Choy? The Internet!," Virtual China News, 9 June 2000, accessed June 2000 at www.virtualchina.com
[18] See Chinese handicrafts for sale on www.world2market.com, for example.
[19] "IBM Eyes Online E-Business for Chinese SMEs," Nikkei Asia BizTech, 13 June 2000, accessed June 2000 at www.nikkeibp.asiabiztech.com
[20] Miriam Jordan, “Web Sites Revive Fading Handicrafts,” Wall Street Journal, 12 June 2000, p. B1. See the site at www.world2market.com, for example.
[21] Abby Ellin, “High-Tech Philanthropy in a Low-Tech Guatemalan Village,” The New York Times, 4 June 2000, accessed June 2000 at www.nytimes.com
[22] www.ccidnet.com
[23] Stephen J. Anderson, "China's Widening Web," China Business Review, March-April 2000.
[24] "Shanghai Gets Tough on Illegal Internet Cafés," Muzi Lateline News, 1 Feburary 2000, accessed June 2000 at dailynews.muzi.com
[25] See for example, “Internet Expansion in SADC Goes Very Slow,” Africa News Online, 16 June 2000, accessed June 2000 at www.africanews.org
[26] www.planetfinance.org
[27] "Beijingers Save While China Deflates," U.S. Embassy, China, 20 October 1999, accessed June 2000 at www.usembassy-china.org
[28] Steven Mufson, "Ex-Mao Devotee Devotes Career to Women," The Washington Post, 18 June 1998.
[29] Denise Albrighton, “Obstacles to Money-Making on the Web Remain,” op. cit.; Andrew Travin, “E-Commerce in Russia,” Aport 2000, accessed 31 May 2000 at www.aport-ru.com
[30] Leonid Konik, “Menatep Opens Way to Online Shopping,” St. Petersburg Times, 25 April 2000.
[31] Interview with Carol Charles, op. cit.
[32] Interview with Carol Charles, op. cit.
[33] See explorador.net
[34] Interview with Robert Houdek, op. cit.
[35] For example, many of the key figures in China Online, Sina.com, and MeetChina.com are returnees.
[36] See World2Market.com.
[37] Interview with Carol Charles, op. cit.
[38] Interview with Mark Falcoff, op. cit.
[39] "China's Taxman Alarmed by Growing E-commerce Fraud," MuziNet Lateline News, 9 June 1999 accessed at dailynews.muzi.com.
[40] "China Unveils Rules on Audio-Visual Online Trade," Muzi Lateline, 25 March 2000, accessed June 2000 at dailynews.muzi.com.
[41] Alexa Oleson, "China Reverses Encryption Regulations," Virtual China News, 14 March 2000.
[42] Jen Tracy, “Russia’s Electronic Police Get Carte Blanche,” St. Petersburg Times, 14 January 2000.
[43] Narayanan Madhavan, “House Passes E-Commerce Bill,” The Observer, 17 May 2000, accessed 17 May 2000 at www.observerindia.com; “Information Technology Bill Introduced in Rajya Sabha,” Bharat On-line News,17 May 2000, accessed 17 May 2000 at www.bol.net.in
[44] Carol Charles, “Enabling…” op. cit., p. 16.
[45] Interview with Carol Charles, op. cit.
[46] Celia W. Dugger, “India’s Unwired Villages Mired in the Distant Past,” New York Times, 19 March 2000.
[47] Carol Charles, “Enabling…” op. cit., p. 13.
[48] http://www.chinaonline.com/features/currency/blackmarket.asp
[49] Kevin Platt, "Tao of the Times: With a Click, Chinese Vault Cultural Walls," The Christian Science Monitor, 1 June 2000, accessed June 2000 at www.csmonitor.com
[50] Melinda Liu, "The Great Firewall of China," Newsweek International, 11 October 1999, accessed June 2000 at www.newsweek.com
[51] Kevin Platt, "Tao of the Times: With a Click, Chinese Vault Cultural Walls," op. cit.
[52] "China to Regulate Web News Reporting," Muzi Lateline News, 16 May 2000 accessed June 2000 at dailynews.muzi.com. Bruce Einhorn, "A Web Site Feels the Wrath of Beijing," Businessweek Online, 22 May 2000 accessed June 2000 at www.businessweekonline.com
[53] Ellen Bork, "Dot-Commies: Beijing's Internet Policies Are Short on Freedom, Long on Control," The Weekly Standard, 15 May 2000; "China Sets Up Office to Regulate Internet News," Muzi Lateline News, 12 May 2000 accessed June 2000 at dailynews.muzi.com.
[54] "Chinese Web Site Operator Arrested on Subversion Charges," The New York Times, 8 June 2000, accessed June 2000 at www.nytimes.com
[55] Kevin Platt, "Tao of the Times: With a Click, Chinese Vault Cultural Walls," op. cit.
[56] “The Wiring of India,” The Economist, accessed 30 May 2000 at www.economist.com
[57] Barbara Belejack, “Cyberculture Comes to the Americas,” accessed 13 June 2000 at www2.planeta.com
[58] Steven Mufson, "A Quiet Bureaucrat, Promoting The Vote One Village at a Time," The Washington Post, 14 June 1998 accessed June 2000 at www.washingtonpost.com
[59] Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization, April 2000, p. 74.
[60] Melinda Liu, "The Great Firewall of China," op. cit.
[61] One has only to type the words "Free Tibet" into a common search engine and dozens of examples of the Free Tibet movement's use of the Internet will return as hits.
[62] Kevin Platt, "Tao of the Times: With a Click, Chinese Vault Cultural Walls," op. cit.
[63] Rod Pounsett, “Russians Need the Internet,” op. cit.
[64] Celia W. Dugger, “Connecting Rural India to the World,”op. cit.
[65] Kevin Platt, "Tao of the Times: With a Click, Chinese Vault Cultural Walls," op. cit.
[66] Of particular note is the student-based advocacy group, Students for a Free Tibet, which has chapters around the world. Its main site can be found at www.tibet.org/SFT
[67] Arik Hesseldahl, "Hacking for Human Rights?," Wired.com, 14 July 1998 accessed June 2000 at www.wired.com
[68] Interview with Carol Charles, op. cit.
[69] Barbara Belejack, “Cyberculture Comes to the Americas,” op. cit.
[70] Harry Cleaver, “The Zapatistas and the Electronic Fabric of Struggle,” University of Texas, accessed 13 June 2000 at www.isoc.org
[71] Stephen J. Anderson, "China's Widening Web," China Business Review, March-April 2000. Melinda Liu, "The Great Firewall of China," op. cit. "China Clamps Down on Mainland-produced Internet Content," Muzi Lateline News, 28 January 2000, accessed at dailynews.muzi.com
[72] "China's Internet Regulator Launches Web Site," Muzi Lateline News, 3 April 2000 accessed June 2000 at dailynews.muzi.com
[73] Melinda Liu, "The Great Firewall of China,"  op. cit.
[74] "China's Internet Clampdown Will Lose Sting in the Long Run: Analysts," Muzi Lateline News, 28 January 2000, accessed June 2000 at dailynews.muzi.com
[75] Jen Tracy, “Russia’s Electronic Police Get Carte Blanche,” St. Petersburg Times, 14 January 2000.
[76] See the Russian sites at www.infocenter.ru, www.chechnya.ru, and www.antiterror.ru; the pro-Chechen sites can be accessed at www.kavkaz.org and www.ichkeria.com.ge
[77] Interview with Carol Charles, op. cit.
[78] Sanjeev Miglani, “India Drops Controversial Change to IT Bill,” Reuters, 15 May 2000.
[79] Harry Cleaver, “The Zapatistas and the Electronic Fabric of Struggle,” op. cit.