Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Technologies for Detecting Explosives and
Narcotics (Letter Report, 09/04/96, GAO/NSIAD/RCED-96-252).

Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on
available explosives and narcotics detection technologies focusing on:
(1) funding for those technologies; (2) characteristics and limitations
of available and planned technologies; and (3) deployment of these
technologies by the United States and foreign countries.

GAO found that: (1) since 1978, the federal government has spent about
$246 million for research and development on explosives detection
technologies and about $100 million on narcotics detection technologies;
(2) the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the U.S. Customs
Service use a variety of equipment such as X-ray technology, hand-held
devices, and dog teams to search for explosives and narcotics; (3) a
number of advanced detection technologies are or will be available to
FAA and Customs, but certain factors such as cost, the impact on
commerce, and detection reliability must be considered; and (4) many
other countries, such as Great Britain, Belgium, and, Germany deploy
explosives detection technologies that do not have FAA approval in the
United States.

--------------------------- Indexing Terms -----------------------------

     TITLE:  Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Technologies for Detecting 
             Explosives and Narcotics
      DATE:  09/04/96
   SUBJECT:  Transportation safety
             Drug trafficking
             Commercial aviation
             Research and development
             Law enforcement
             Search and seizure

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================================================================ COVER

Report to Congressional Requesters

September 1996



Terrorism and Drug Trafficking


=============================================================== ABBREV

  DOD - Department of Defense
  FAA - Federal Aviation Administration
  IMS - Ion Mobility Spectroscopy
  KeV - thousand electron volts
  MeV - million electron volts
  ONDCP - Office of National Drug Control Policy
  R&D - research and development
  TSWG - Technical Support Working Group

=============================================================== LETTER


September 4, 1996

The Honorable Benjamin A.  Gilman
The Honorable Lee H.  Hamilton
Ranking Minority Member
Committee on International Relations
House of Representatives

The Honorable Alfonse M.  D'Amato
United States Senate

The ability to detect explosives and narcotics is increasingly
important to U.S.  national security.  Explosives are the terrorist's
weapon of choice.  Their use against commercial aircraft have led to
loss of lives and weakened confidence in the security of air travel. 
Likewise, narcotics trafficking ruins lives, drains billions of
dollars from the economy, and spawns violence that threatens U.S. 

As you requested, we have developed information on explosives and
narcotics detection technologies that are available or under
development.  More specifically, this report discusses (1) funding
for those technologies, (2) characteristics and limitations of
available and planned technologies, and (3) deployment of
technologies by the United States and foreign countries.  The
appendixes provide detailed information on the most significant types
of technologies available and under development, including brief
summaries of their characteristics, their current status in terms of
development or deployment, the estimated range of prices for the
technologies, and the amount of federal funds spent on the
technologies between fiscal years 1978 and 1996. 

This report is one of a series you requested on the role of
technology in explosives and narcotics detection.\1 In recent
testimony, \2 we concluded that an approach should be developed
immediately to address the actions needed to reduce vulnerabilities
in aviation security identified in our classified reports.  This
report provides a summary of technologies that should be considered
in addressing the actions needed.  A subsequent report will address
issues related to governmentwide coordination of technology
development and deployment. 

\1 Terrorism and Drug Trafficking:  Threats and Roles of Explosives
and Narcotics Detection Technology (GAO/NSIAD/RCED-96-76BR, Mar.  27,
1996).  Other reports have been classified by executive branch

\2 Aviation Security:  Immediate Action Needed to Improve Security
(GAO/T-RCED/NSIAD-96-237, Aug.  1, 1996). 

------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :1

The increased threat of terrorism is an urgent national issue.  The
President directed the establishment of a commission on July 25,
1996, headed by Vice President Gore, whose charter included reviewing
aviation security.  The commission was charged with reporting to the
President within
45 days its initial findings on aviation security, including plans to
(1) deploy technology capable of detecting the most sophisticated
explosive devices and (2) pay for that technology.  In a classified
report, we made recommendations to the Vice President, in his
capacity as chairman of the commission, that would enhance the
effectiveness of the commission's work.  Detection technologies are
also important in the effort to stem the flow of drugs into the
United States. 

Detection technologies are typically developed for specific
applications--some for aviation security, some for drug interdiction,
and some for both.  The major applications for the aviation security
efforts of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) include the
screening of checked baggage, passengers, cargo, mail, and carry-on
items such as electronics, luggage, and bottles.  FAA's need for
detection technology comes from its security responsibilities
involving more than 470 domestic airports and 150 U.S.  airlines,
annually boarding over 500 million passengers with their checked
baggage and carry-on luggage, and transporting mail and cargo. 

Some advanced detection technologies are commercially available to
serve aviation security applications.  However, only one technology
is currently deployed in the United States.  That technology is being
operationally tested at two U.S.  airports. 

Major applications for the drug interdiction efforts of the U.S. 
Customs Service include screening of cargo and containers,
pedestrians, and vehicles and their occupants.  Customs' need for
detection technology emanates from its responsibilities to control
301 ports of entry.  Currently, over 400 million people, almost 120
million cars, and 10 million containers and trucks pass through these
points each year. 

Currently, Customs' screening is done manually by inspectors with
relatively little equipment beyond hand-held devices for detecting
false compartments in containers. 

The challenges in detecting explosives are significantly different
than the challenges in detecting narcotics, as are the consequences
in not detecting them.  Customs and other drug enforcement agencies
are concerned with much larger quantities than are aviation security
personnel.  Consequently, greater technical challenges are posed in
attempting to detect explosives that might be used to bring down a
commercial aircraft. 

Two general groups of technologies, with modifications, can be used
to detect both explosives and narcotics.  The first group uses
X-rays, nuclear techniques involving neutron or gamma ray
bombardment, or electromagnetic waves, such as radio frequency waves. 
These technologies show anomalies in a targeted object that might
indicate concealed explosives and narcotics or detect actual
explosives and narcotics.  The second group, referred to as trace
detection technologies, uses chemical analyses to identify particles
or vapors characteristic of narcotics or explosives and deposited on,
or surrounding, objects, such as carry-on electronics or surfaces of
vehicles.  In addition to technologies, dogs are considered a unique
type of trace detector because they can be trained to respond in
specific ways to smells of narcotics or explosives. 

------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :2

Aviation security and drug interdiction depend on a complex and
costly mix of intelligence, procedures, and technologies.  Since
1978, federal agencies have spent about $246 million for research and
development on explosives detection technologies and almost $100
million on narcotics detection technologies.  Most of this spending
has occurred since 1990, in response to congressional direction, and
has been for technologies to screen checked baggage, trucks, and

Difficult trade-offs must be made when considering whether to use
detection technologies for a given application.  Chief among those
trade-offs are the extent to which intelligence-gathering and
procedures can substitute for technology or reduce the need for
expensive technology.  Decisionmakers also need to evaluate
technologies in terms of their characteristics and limitations.  Some
technologies are very effective and could be deployed now, but they
are expensive, slow the flow of commerce, and raise issues of worker
safety.  Other technologies could be more widely used, but they are
less reliable.  Still others may not be available for several years
at the current pace of development. 

Despite the limitations of the currently available technology, some
countries have already deployed advanced explosives and narcotics
detection equipment because of differences in their perception of the
threat and their approaches to counter the threat.  Should the United
States start deploying the currently available technologies, lessons
can be learned from these countries regarding their approaches, as
well as capabilities of technology in operating environments.  FAA
estimates that use of the best available procedures and technology
for enhancing aviation security could cost as much as $6 billion over
the next 10 years or alternatively about $1.30 per one-way ticket, if
the costs were paid through a surcharge. 

------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :3

Since 1978, the federal government has spent about $246 million for
research and development (R&D) on explosives detection technologies,
including over $7 million for ongoing demonstration testing at the
Atlanta, San Francisco, and Manila airports.  During the same period,
the government has spent about $100 million for R&D on narcotics
technologies and a little more than $20 million procuring a variety
of equipment to assist Customs inspectors, such as hand-held devices
for detecting false compartments.  The majority of the spending has
occurred since 1990. 

As shown in table 1, annual R&D spending on explosives detection
technologies fluctuated from $23 million to $28 million during the
first part of this decade, before increasing to $39 million for
fiscal year 1996.  The $14 million, or over 50 percent, increase from
fiscal year 1995 is due principally to FAA's funding of demonstration
testing of a technology for screening checked baggage and to the
funding of a counterterrorism application by the Technical Support
Working Group (TSWG).\3

                                Table 1
                 R&D Spending on Detection Technologies
                  for Fiscal Years 1978 through 1996\a

                   (Millions of current-year dollars)

Technology             FY90  FY91  FY92  FY93  FY94  FY95  FY96  Total
-------------------  ------  ----  ----  ----  ----  ----  ----  -----
Explosives              $78   $23   $28   $28   $25   $25   $39   $246
Narcotics                 2    14    16    18    20    14    17    100
Total                   $80   $36   $45   $46   $45   $39   $55   $346
\a Spending for explosives technologies is based on estimates
provided by FAA and TSWG, while narcotics spending is based on
estimates by Customs, DOD, and the Office of National Drug Control
Policy (ONDCP).  Customs was unable to provide estimates of spending
prior to fiscal year 1988.  Spending by DOD and ONDCP did not begin
until fiscal years 1991 and 1992, respectively. 

Note:  Totals may not add due to rounding. 

Annual spending on narcotics detection technology increased during
the first part of the decade from $14 million to a peak of $20
million in fiscal year 1994 and then dropped $3 million from that
peak, or 15 percent.  The reason for this decline is reduced spending
by the Department of Defense (DOD) as it shifted emphasis from one
type of narcotics detection technology to other, less costly types of
technologies to satisfy Customs' needs. 

\3 The Technical Support Working Group is a National Security
Council-sponsored interagency forum for coordinating research and
development on counterterrorism. 

---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :3.1

The spending on detection technologies that has occurred since 1990
has been due in large part to congressional direction.  The Aviation
Security Improvement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-604) directed FAA to
increase the pace of its R&D.  The act also set a goal of deploying
explosives detection technologies by November 1993.  However, it
prohibited FAA from mandating deployment of a particular technology
until that technology had first been certified as capable of
detecting various types and quantities of explosives using testing
protocols developed in conjunction with the scientific community. 

FAA initially concentrated its efforts on developing protocols and
technologies for screening checked baggage to address one of the
security vulnerabilities that contributed to the bombing of Pan Am
flight 103 in December 1988.  However, the goal of deploying such
technology has still not been met.  FAA has certified one system, and
it is being operationally tested at two domestic airports and one
airport overseas. 

Congress tasked DOD in 1990 to develop narcotics detection
technologies for Customs and other drug enforcement organizations. 
DOD has focused on developing "non-intrusive inspection" technologies
to screen containers without the need for opening them.  Customs is
deploying a DOD-developed technology for trucks and empty containers,
but it rejected another DOD-developed technology for fully loaded
containers (see p.  8).  Customs has identified containerized cargo
at commercial seaports as its greatest unsolved narcotics detection
requirement.  According to Customs, it may be necessary to explore
new methods of financing the systems that are technologically
feasible for seaports, but high in cost. 

------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :4

Both aviation security and drug interdiction depend on a complex mix
of intelligence, procedures, and technologies, which can partially
substitute for each other in terms of characteristics, strengths, and
limitations.  For example, FAA evaluates information from the
intelligence community in determining a level of threat and mandating
security procedures appropriate to a specific time and place.  These
security procedures include bag matching and passenger profiling.\4
FAA estimates that incorporating bag matching in everyday security
could cost up to $2 billion, while profiling could reduce to 20
percent the number of passengers requiring additional screening.  The
Customs' drug interdiction task has an analogous set of procedures
and technologies and trade-offs. 

Relevant trade-offs in selecting detection technologies for a given
application involve their characteristics and costs, including issues
of their effectiveness in detecting explosives or narcotics, safety
risks to users of the technology, and impacts on the flow of
commerce.  For example, some highly effective technologies could be
deployed now, but they are expensive, raise safety concerns, or slow
the flow of commerce.  These trade-offs are required for each of the
major detection technology applications for FAA and Customs. 

While areas of overlap exist, FAA's aviation security applications
generally relate to checked baggage, passengers, and carry-on items,
and Customs' drug interdiction applications generally relate to
screening of cargo, containers, vehicles, and baggage.  In addition
to detection technologies, teams of dogs and their handlers are used
for both aviation security and drug interdiction applications. 

\4 Bag matching is a procedure to ensure that a passenger who checks
a bag also boards the flight; if not, the bag is removed.  Profiling
is a method of identifying potentially threatening passengers, who
are then subjected to additional security measures.  Profiling
reduces the number of passengers requiring additional security

---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.1

-------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.1.1

A system is available today for screening checked baggage that has
been certified by FAA as capable of detecting various types and
quantities of explosives likely to be used to cause catastrophic
damage to a commercial aircraft, as is required by the Aviation
Security Improvement Act of 1990.  However, the certified system is
costly and has operational limitations, including a designed
throughput of about 500 bags an hour with actual throughput much less
than that number.  Other less costly and faster systems are
available, but they cannot detect all the amounts, configurations,
and types of explosive material likely to be used to cause
catastrophic damage to commercial aircraft. 

FAA's plans for developing detection technologies for checked baggage
include efforts to improve the certified system, develop new
technologies, and evaluate a mix of technologies.  FAA believes that
an appropriate mix of systems that individually do not meet
certification requirements might eventually work together to detect
the amounts, configurations, and types of explosive material that are
required by the act. 

Appendix I provides additional information about the various types of
technologies available and under development for screening checked
baggage, including the characteristics and limitations of those
technologies, their status, the estimated range of prices for the
technologies, and federal government funding for the technologies. 

-------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.1.2

The National Research Council recently reported that X-ray and
electromagnetic technologies produce images of sufficient quality to
make them effective for screening passengers for concealed
explosives.\5 Future development efforts by FAA and TSWG are
generally focusing on devices that detect explosives on boarding
documents passengers have handled and portals that passengers would
walk through.  One type of portal uses trace detection technologies
that collect and analyze traces from the passengers' clothing or
vapors surrounding them.  The other type uses electromagnetic waves
to screen passengers for items hidden under clothing. 

The National Research Council also recently observed that successful
deployment of these technologies is likely to depend on the public's
perception about the seriousness of the threat and the effectiveness
of devices in countering the threat, which might also be considered
intrusive or thought to be a health risk.  (See App.  II for more
information about the various types of technologies available and
under development for passenger screening.)

\5 Airline Passenger Security Screening:  New Technologies and
Implementation Issues.  Washington, DC:  National Academy Press,

-------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.1.3

Technologies available today for screening carry-ons for hidden
explosives include conventional X-ray machines, an electromagnetic
system, and trace detection devices.\6

FAA has recently developed trace detection standards for inspecting
carry-on electronics for explosives.  In addition, FAA has "assessed
as effective," but not certified, three trace detection systems to be
used during periods of heightened security.  FAA expects to soon
"assess as effective" three more trace detection systems.  The more
expensive trace technologies used for carry-on baggage are capable of
detecting smaller amounts of explosives and narcotics.  FAA's future
efforts are expected to include developing an enhanced X-ray device
and screeners for bottles.  (See app.  III for more detailed
information about technologies for screening carry-on items.)

\6 We previously reported on limitations in performance of
conventional X-ray machines and their operators. 

---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.2


Tests have shown that fully loaded containers can be effectively
screened for narcotics with available high energy X-ray technologies
(about 8 million electron volts or the equivalent of 50 to 70 times
the energy of a typical airport-passenger X-ray).  However, Customs
rejected a DOD-developed high energy technology because it cost $12
million to $15 million per location, required a large amount of land
for shielding, and raised safety concerns.  Available low-energy
technologies (the equivalent of 3 to 4 times the energy of a
passenger X-ray) are less costly and safer but cannot penetrate full
containers, so their use is limited to screening for hidden
compartments in empty containers and objects concealed in trucks and
trailers.  About 4 to 25 containers per hour can be processed through
low- and high-energy X-ray technologies depending on their

According to DOD and Customs officials, future efforts in container
screening will include developing less expensive X-ray systems with
higher energy levels, mobile X-ray systems, and more capable
hand-held trace detection systems.  Those efforts will also include
evaluating nuclear-based techniques for inspecting empty tankers at
truck and rail ports.\7 (See
app.  IV for additional information about technologies for screening
cargo and containers.)

\7 As mentioned earlier, overlap exists in technology applications
for drug interdiction and aviation security.  FAA's future air cargo
screening efforts will also include nuclear technologies.  Appendix
IV shows that FAA has spent over $5 million developing one specific
nuclear technology for cargo screening, while DOD has spent about $19
million developing the same technology for narcotics screening. 

---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.3

Dogs can be trained to alert their handlers upon detecting explosives
and narcotics.  FAA-certified dogs are trained to detect various
types of explosive substances that might be concealed in aircraft,
airport vehicles, baggage, cargo, and terminals.  Customs' dogs are
trained to detect narcotics and in 1994 almost 6,000 drug seizures
were attributable to dog teams.  Currently funded projects include
efforts to develop methods of bringing air samples to the dogs, or
swabs from objects they are to inspect. 

------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :5

Despite the limitations of currently available detection
technologies, other countries have deployed some of these
technologies to detect explosives and narcotics because of
differences in their perception of the threat and their approaches to
counter the threat.  These countries' experiences provide
opportunities to learn lessons about operational measures taken to
deploy detection technologies, such as the amount of airport
modifications needed to incorporate new technologies and the types of
training provided to the operators of the new equipment, as well as
the actual effectiveness of the technologies. 

While Customs has deployed equipment such as hand-held devices, it is
also deploying up to 12 low-energy X-ray systems to screen empty
containers and trucks for narcotics along the Southwest border.  On
the other hand, some countries are using high-energy systems to
screen fully loaded containers.  The high-energy systems installed at
ports of entry in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and China
would have similar uses at seaports here, but Customs officials told
us that the systems are too new for reliable operational data.  They
also told us that tests have not been conducted against Customs'
requirements and the technologies would also be too expensive in the
quantities needed for nationwide deployment. 

A high-energy nuclear system is being considered for deployment at
the Euro Tunnel between France and the United Kingdom.  The system
would be used to screen for explosives concealed in trucks and their
cargo being transported under the English Channel.  This system could
also be used to detect narcotics. 

In the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium, we
observed governments working closely with airport authorities to
deploy explosives detection technologies.  In two countries, airport
authorities have generally embraced an approach that entails
successive levels of review of checked baggage to resolve uncertainty
about checked baggage.  This approach can require complex systems for
tracking throughout the entire baggage handling system.  Instead of
using only the FAA-certified system for checked baggage, these
countries are using a mix of technologies.  Their approach has been
to implement technology that is an improvement on existing technology
or procedures, rather than waiting for perfected technology. 

Officials in the two other countries are waiting for the next
generation of explosives detection technologies.  They believe that
X-ray technologies have generally reached their limits in detecting

All of the countries have also deployed trace detection technology
for screening checked baggage or carry-on items, especially

FAA officials told us they cannot mandate the types of approaches
used by other countries, although airlines could voluntarily adopt
them, because of the statutory prohibition against mandating
technology that is not certified. 

With a combination of the best available technologies and procedures,
including the use of the certified system for screening checked
baggage, FAA estimates the incremental cost of the most effective
security system for U.S.  air travellers to be $6 billion over the
next 10 years.  On a per-passenger basis, FAA estimates the
equivalent cost to be about $1.30 per one-way ticket. 

Customs and FAA have deployed dog teams widely.  Customs has deployed
about 450 dog teams to airports, seaports, and land border ports. 
The cost to train a Customs' dog and handler is about $6,000.  FAA's
canine explosives detection program includes 29 U.S.  airports with a
total of 72 FAA-trained and certified dog teams.  Of the 19 largest
U.S.  airports, 14 have FAA-trained and certified dogs.  The five
airports without certified dogs are Washington-National,
Washington-Dulles, Baltimore-Washington International, New York-John
F.  Kennedy, and Honolulu.  According to an FAA official, these
airports do not have FAA-certified dog teams because airport
officials are concerned about cost.  The cost to train an FAA dog and
handler is about $17,000 and the annual operating cost of a team,
including the handler's salary, is about $60,000. 

------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :6

Five agencies--FAA, DOD, Customs, TSWG, and ONDCP--provided comments
on the technical accuracy of information contained in a draft of this
report.  We have incorporated their comments in this final report
where appropriate. 

------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :7

To determine the amount of federal government spending for R&D on
explosives and narcotics detection technologies, we obtained funding
information from Customs, FAA, DOD, ONDCP, and TSWG covering periods
as far back as the information was available.  Although we identified
the historical and current levels of funding, we generally focused on
the period 1990 to the present because most technologies were
developed and deployed during this period. 

To obtain information on the characteristics and limitations of
available and planned technologies for containers, checked baggage,
passengers, and carry-on items, we requested project information from
the same five agencies for each detection technology project they had
undertaken since 1990.  Additionally, we received briefings from
developers of technology and manufacturers of equipment currently
available on the market. 

We analyzed major categories of technologies to identify a few
characteristics common to each that can be used in making
comparisons.  We did not attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the
technologies, nor did we assess whether the current funding level is
adequate to develop reliable detection technologies. 

We interviewed officials and gathered data primarily from the FAA,
DOD, Customs, ONDCP, and TSWG to develop information on available and
planned detection technologies.  We also interviewed officials and
visited ports of entry in Miami, Florida; San Juan, Puerto Rico; and
Otay Mesa, California; and airports in Belgium, Germany, the
Netherlands, United Kingdom, and the United States. 

---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :7.1

We are sending copies of this report to the Vice President of the
United States; Chairmen and Ranking Minority Members of appropriate
congressional committees; the Secretaries of Treasury, State,
Defense, and Transportation; the Attorney General, Department of
Justice; the Administrators, FAA and Drug Enforcement Administration;
the Commissioner, U.S.  Customs Service; and the Directors, ONDCP,
Central Intelligence, and Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

If you or your staff have any questions concerning explosives
detection technology, please contact Gerald L.  Dillingham at (202)
512-2834.  If you have any questions regarding narcotics detection
technologies, please call David E.  Cooper on (202) 512-4841.  Major
contributors to this report are listed in appendix V. 

John H.  Anderson, Jr.
Director, Transportation and
 Telecommunications Issues
Resources, Community, and Economic
Development Division

Louis J.  Rodrigues
Director, Defense
 Acquisitions Issues
National Security and
International Affairs Division

=========================================================== Appendix I

                Characteristic                  Unit Price      Funding (FYs 78-
Technology      s               Status          Range           96)
--------------  --------------  --------------  --------------  ----------------
Computerized    X-ray source    Commercially    $850,000 to $1  $22.2 million
Axial           rotates around  available.      million         (FAA)
Tomography      a bag           Achieved
(CAT Scan)      obtaining a     Federal
                large number    Aviation
                of cross-       Administration
                sectional       (FAA)
                images that     certification
                are integrated  in December
                by a computer,  1994. FAA
                which displays  currently
                densities of    funding
                objects in the  operational
                bag.            testing at
                                three airports
                Automatically   and also
                alarms when     funding
                objects with    projects to
                high            improve
                densities,      throughput
                characteristic  rate, reduce
                of explosives,  unit cost, and
                are detected.   improve
                Relatively      capabilities.
                slow            Department of
                throughput;     Defense (DOD)
                certified       recently
                system          tested
                requires two    technology for
                units to meet   detecting
                throughput      drugs in small
                requirement.    packages.

Dual-energy X-  Two different   Commercially    $400,000        $2.1 million
rays            X-ray energies  available. FAA                  (FAA)
                determine the   is developing
                densities and   an enhanced
                average atomic  version that
                numbers of the  may meet
                target          certification
                material.       standards. The
                                U.S. Customs
                Currently none  Service
                of the X-rays   (Customs)
                in this group   plans to test
                meets           this
                certification   technology for
                standards for   drug
                checked bags    detection.
                because they
                do not detect
                the quantities
                of the full
                range of
                specified in

X-rays with     Backscatter     Commercially    $100,000 to     $100,000
backscatter     detects         available. FAA  $140,000        (Customs)
                reflected X-    has several                     $2.2 million
                ray energy,     projects aimed                  (FAA)
                providing an    at assisting
                additional      this group of
                image to        X-ray devices
                highlight       meet
                organic         certification
                materials such  standards.
                as explosives
                and drugs near
                the edge of a

                This group of
                X-ray devices
                generally does
                alarm and
                requires an
                operator to
                interpret the

Coherent X-     Technology is   FAA and         NA\b            $4.5 million
ray Scatter     based on the    Customs                         (FAA)
(also known as  detection of    terminated                      $270,000
X-ray           scatter         projects due                    (Customs)
Diffraction)    patterns as X-  to significant
                rays interact   technical
                with crystal    problems. A
                lattice         foreign
                structures of   government and
                materials.      contractor are
                                development of

Gamma-Gamma     Accelerator     DOD is          NA              $8.6 million
Resonance       produces gamma  building a                      (DOD)
Imaging         rays that       prototype to
                penetrate bags  demonstrate
                to detect       proof-of-
                presence of     principle for
                chlorine        airport
                compounds in    baggage
                narcotics.      carousel
                Eventual        Demonstration
                system          is expected in
                expected to be  December 1996.

Thermal         Neutrons from   Six machines    $1 million      $6.6 million
Neutron         a radioactive   built and                       (FAA)
Analysis        source probe    tested since                    $280,000 (DOD)
                bags for        1989. FAA                       $27,000
                presence of     discontinued                    (Customs)
                nitrogen or     checked
                chlorine        baggage
                compounds.      portion of
                                project in
                Automatically   1994, but it
                alarms on       is now
                explosives or   investigating
                narcotics.      carry-on
                Cost, size,     DOD contractor
                and false       now using FAA
                alarm rate      machines to
                were of         test drug
                concern to      detection.
                Commission on
                Terrorism and
                Security, and

Quadrupole      Radio           Commercially    $340,000        $1 million
Resonance       frequency       available. FAA                  (DOD)
                pulses probe    has a                           $350,000 Office
                bags to elicit  prototype                       of National Drug
                unique          capable of                      Control Policy
                responses from  detecting two                   (ONDCP)
                explosives and  types of                        $0.7 million
                drugs.          explosives.                     (FAA)
                                Customs has a                   $1.6 million
                Nonimaging      prototype                       Technical
                technology      capable of                      Support Working
                that provides   detecting                       Group (TSWG)
                chemically      cocaine base.
                detection and
                alarms on
                explosives or

                Currently does
                not meet FAA

                Detection of
\a The Funding column indicates whether a specific technology was
developed or is being developed for explosives detection, narcotics
detection, or both.  Generally, FAA and TSWG funding has supported
explosives detection, while funding by DOD, Customs, and ONDCP has
supported narcotics detection.  Where a technology funding cell shows
FAA or TSWG in combination with DOD, Customs, or ONDCP, that
technology is generally capable of detecting both narcotics and

\b Not available. 

========================================================== Appendix II

                Characteristic                  Unit Price      Funding (FYs 78-
Technology      s               Status          Range           96)
--------------  --------------  --------------  --------------  ----------------
Magnetic        System is       Prototype       NA\b            $1.3 million
Resonance for   nonimaging,     developed and                   (ONDCP)
Drug            but will        tested at an                    $123,000
Swallowers      automatically   airport.                        (Customs)
                alarm if drug   Project was
                is detected in  terminated
                the digestive   because system
                tract of a      emitted radio
                swallower.      frequencies
                Requires about  interfered
                30 seconds to   with airport
                screen a        operations and
                suspect.        Customs
                                $165,000 on
                                System is now
                                sitting idle
                                at a Customs'

Dielectric      System will     Under           $110,000 to     $1.6 million
Portal          scan 360        development by  $200,000        (FAA)
                degrees around  FAA. Factory
                a passenger     and airport
                and             testing to
                automatically   occur in 1997.
                pinpoint the
                location of
                all undeclared
                objects on the
                surface of the

                System will be
                capable of
                processing 500
                passengers per

Millimeter      System          Under           $100,000 to     $5.3 million
Wave Portal     provides 360-   development by  $200,000        (FAA)
                degree imaging  FAA. Fieldable
                of the human    prototype to
                body in order   be completed
                to detect       mid-1997 with
                weapons,        airport
                explosives,     testing to
                and drugs       follow.

                System does
                not provide
                detection, but
                relies on an
                operator to
                spot the

                expected to
                process 360-
                600 passengers
                per hour.

Chemiluminesce  Vacuum wands    Under           NA\b            $4.0 million
nce Portal      touching        development by                  (FAA)
                clothing        FAA. Fieldable
                collect vapor   prototype
                and particles   completed in
                while           1995. Factory
                passengers are  and airport
                walking         testing will
                through the     begin in late
                portal.         1996.

                System will
                alarm if
                explosive is

                Throughput is
                estimated to
                be 360 per

Ion Mobility    Air flow        Two prototypes  $300,000 to     $2.5 million
Spectroscopy    dislodges       are being       $500,000        (FAA)
(IMS) Portals   vapor or        developed by
                particles from  FAA.
                portals to
                test for

                alarm if
                explosive is

                goal is 360
                per hour.

IMS Passenger   Trace samples   Under           $65,000 to      $125,000 (FAA)
Scanner         collected from  development by  $85,000
                passengers'     FAA. Field
                hands either    prototype to
                through a       be available
                token or        sometime in
                document.       1996.

                System will
                alarm if
                explosive is

                Throughput is
                estimated to
                be 425 per

IMS Document    Collects trace  Under           $65,000 to      $430,000 (TSWG)
Screeners       samples from    development by  $85,000
                passengers'     TSWG. Project
                documents.      started in
                                April 1996 and
                System will     to be
                automatically   completed in
                alarm if        1998.
                explosive is

                Throughput is
                estimated to
                be 450 per
\a The Funding column indicates whether a specific technology was
developed or is being developed for explosives detection, narcotics
detection, or both.  Generally, FAA and TSWG funding has supported
explosives detection, while funding by DOD, Customs, and ONDCP has
supported narcotics detection.  Where a technology funding cell shows
FAA or TSWG in combination with DOD, Customs, or ONDCP, that
technology is generally capable of detecting both narcotics and

\b Not available. 

========================================================= Appendix III

                Characteristic                  Unit Price      Funding (FYs 78-
Technology      s               Status          Range           96)
--------------  --------------  --------------  --------------  ----------------
Ion Mobility    Measures        Commercially    $45,000 to      $2.3 million
Spectroscopy    mobility of     available. For  $152,000        (FAA)
(IMS)           various         example, 125
                chemicals       units of a
                through a gas   particular IMS
                in an           system have
                electrical      been deployed
                field.          overseas.

                portable, and

                Lower chemical
                than mass

Combination     Combines gas    Commercially    $100,000 to     $2 million
Technologies    chromatography  available. For  $170,000        (FAA)
                and mass        example, 154                    $230,000 (TSWG)
                spectrometry    units of a
                or              chemiluminesce
                chemiluminesce  nce system
                nce that        have been
                separates       deployed
                mixtures using  overseas.
                an absorbent

                and chemical

                acceptable in

                slow, and

Enhanced, low-  Do not          Under           NA\b            $325,000 (FAA)
energy X-rays   automatically   development.                    $250,000 (TSWG)
                alarm, so
                dependent on
                of enhanced

                penetration of

Quadrupole      Radio           Commercially    $65,000         This is a
Resonance       frequency       available. A                    product derived
                pulses probe    field                           from funding the
                hags to elicit  prototype                       same technology
                unique          capable of                      listed in
                responses from  handling small                  appendix I.
                explosives and  size packages
                drugs.          was tested in
                                Atlanta during
                Nonimaging      the Olympics
                technology      by airlines to
                that provides   screen
                chemically      electronics.
                detection and
                alarms on
                explosives or

                Detection of

Dielectrometry  System uses     This is an FAA  $19,000 to      $77,000 (FAA)
bottle content  microwave       in-house        $25,000
tester          technology to   project
                penetrate       working with a
                bottles and     commercially
                will discover   available
                when bottles    device. FAA is
                do not contain  currently
                the liquid      testing field
                that is         prototypes.
                expected. It
                is basically a
                rather than

                System does
                not identify
                the liquid in
                the bottle.

                throughput is
                expected to be
                720 bottles
                per hour.
                system is
                unable to
                certain types
                of bottles.

Magnetic        Automatically   Prototypes are  $75,000 to      $974,000 (FAA)
Resonance for   alarms if       available.      $125,000
bottle          explosives
screening       detected.

                Analysis time
                varies between
                20 and 70
                seconds per
                is working to
                analysis time.
\a The Funding column indicates whether a specific technology was
developed or is being developed for explosives detection, narcotics
detection, or both.  Generally, FAA and TSWG funding has supported
explosives detection, while funding by DOD, Customs, and ONDCP has
supported narcotics detection.  Where a technology funding cell shows
FAA or TSWG in combination with DOD, Customs, or ONDCP, that
technology is generally capable of detecting both narcotics and

\b Not available. 

========================================================== Appendix IV

                Characteristic                  Unit Price      Funding (FYs 78-
Technology      s               Status          Range           96)
--------------  --------------  --------------  --------------  ----------------
Nuclear         An accelerator  Project was     NA\b            $12.1 million
Resonance       generates       originally                      (FAA)
Absorption      gamma rays to   intended for
                penetrate the   checked bags
                object to be    and has been
                screened. The   inactive since
                gamma rays are  1993. FAA may
                preferentially  reactivate
                absorbed by     project for
                nitrogen        screening air
                nuclei. A       cargo
                significant     containers.
                decrease in
                the number of
                detected gamma
                rays indicates
                the possible
                presence of

                requires less
                shielding than
                other nuclear

Pulsed Fast     An accelerator  DOD completed   $8 to $10       $19 million
Neutron         generates       the project,    million         (DOD)
Analysis        neutrons for    but the system                  $ 5.3 million
(8 MeV)         bombarding      was not                         (FAA)
                target;         transitioned                    $6.2 million
                induced gamma   to Customs due                  (TSWG)
                rays are        to Customs'
                measured to     concern with
                detect          cost, size,
                presence of     operational,
                narcotics or    and safety
                explosives.     issues. FAA
                System          limited
                automatically   testing for
                alarms based    checked
                on 3            baggage
                dimensional     application in
                images of       1993 and it is
                elemental       now
                ratios of       considering a
                hydrogen,       new project
                oxygen,         for screening
                nitrogen, and   air cargo.
                carbon.         TSWG is
                                funding a
                System takes    counterterrori
                20 minutes per  sm
                analysis and    application.
                typically be
                combined with
                an X-ray
                system to

                Requires a
                large amount
                of space and
                shielding, a
                permit, and an
                FDA permit for
                use on food.

Pulsed Fast     Also uses an    FAA has two     NA\b            $3.5 million
Neutron         accelerator to  ongoing                         (FAA)
Radiography     generate fast   projects and
                neutrons to     now believes
                probe bags;     technology
                measurement of  might be more
                the             suitable for
                transmitted     screening air
                neutron         cargo or
                spectrum is     containerized
                used to detect  checked
                explosives.     baggage than

Gamma Ray       System is       Prototype       About $400,000  $382,000 (ONDCP)
Scanning        designed for    being
(Up to 10 MeV)  propane and     evaluated by
                other gas or    DOD and
                liquid tanker   Customs.
                trucks but is
                adaptable to

                While open and
                requires a
                permit to

High energy,    Systems are     Commercially    $12 to $15      $15 million
fixed-site      designed to     available. DOD  million         (DOD)
systems (5 -    scan loaded     completed the                   $224,000
10 million      trucks/         project in                      (Customs)
electron        containers and  Tacoma,
volts--MeV)     have            Washington,
                throughput of   but system was
                12-25 per hour  not
                depending on    transitioned
                configurations  to Customs due
                .               to Customs'
                                concerns with
                Required        cost, safety,
                extensive       and
                shielding,      operational
                radiation       issues.
                permit, and
                FDA permit if
                used on food.

                System relies
                on operator's
                of the X-ray

Low energy      System is       Commercially    $3 million      $3.7 million
fixed-site      designed to     available.                      (DOD)
system with     scan empty      Customs has
backscatter     trucks or       deployed one
(450 thousand   containers.     machine at
electron                        Otay Mesa,
volts--KeV)     Throughput is   California,
                about six       and plans to
                trucks per      deploy up to
                hour.           11 more along
                                the Southwest
                Relies on       border.
                of the X-Ray

Mobile/         Systems are     DOD is testing  $1.75 to $6     $10.8 million
relocatable     designed to     450 KeV system  million         (DOD)
systems (450    scan empty or   and still
KeV to 2 MeV)   loaded trucks   developing
                and containers  machines at
                depending on    other energy
                the energy      levels.
                level and to
                complement the
                fixed-site X-
                ray systems.

                A 1 MeV system
                is designed
                for aircraft
                size cargo

                May also be
                useful for

Magnetic        Radio           Abandoned       NA\b            $130,000
Resonance       frequency wave  machine is in                   (Customs)
                probes          storage at
                objects,        major
                except that a   Southeastern
                magnet aligns   seaport.
                hydrogen atoms
                prevalent in

                Abandoned FAA
                prototype for
                baggage was
                modified for
                Customs to
                scan frozen

                Machine short-
                during storm
                and Customs
                spending for

Vapor/          Systems are     Many            $2,500 to       $240,000
Particle        based on gas    commercially    $170,000        (Customs)
Detection       chromatography  available. DOD                  $2.4 million
systems         ,               is developing                   (TSWG)
                chemiluminesce  some                            $4.7 million
                nce, mass       prototypes for                  (DOD)
                spectroscopy,   use by
                surface         Customs.
                acoustic wave,
                ion mobility
                and biosensor

                steps are
                critical for
                of systems.
                Most existing
                systems use
                vacuum or
                wiping with a

                Most existing
                systems are
                not currently
                capable of
                detecting the
                extremely low
                pressures of
                cocaine and

Barometric      System differs  Under           NA\b            $1.8 million
chamber with    from other      development by                  (TSWG)
chemiluminesce  vapor           FAA. A
nce detector    detectors in    fieldable
                that it draws   prototype is
                air sample      expected to be
                from a          tested by
                barometric      October 1996.
                chamber into
                which the
                object to be
                inspected has
                been shaken
                and subjected
                to heat

                alarms if
                explosive is

                System may not
                work on a
                tightly sealed

High volume     System          Under           $35,000 to      $1.3 million
sample          concentrates    development by  $42,000         (FAA)
collection      400 litres of   FAA.
with a          air to .5 cc
biosensor       of liquid.
                identifies the

                System is
                suitable for
                use in cargo
                holds and
                interiors of
                aircraft, etc.
\a The Funding column indicates whether a specific technology was
developed or is being developed for explosives detection, narcotics
detection, or both.  Genrally, FAA and TSWG funding has supported
explosives detection, while funding by DOD, Customs, and ONDCP has
supported narcotics detection.  Where a technology funding cell shows
FAA or TSWG in combination with DOD, Customs, or ONDCP, that
technology is generally capable of detecting both narcotics and

\b Not available. 

=========================================================== Appendix V


John P.  K.  Ting
Charles D.  Groves
John K.  Harper
Ernest A.  Doring
David E.  Cooper


Thomas F.  Noone
Matthew E.  Hampton
Marnie S.  Shaul
Gerald L.  Dillingham

*** End of document. ***