30 Apr 93
MISSION NEED STATEMENT
JOINT SURVEILLANCE TARGET ATTACK
RADAR SYSTEM CONNECTIVITY
1. Defense Planning Guidance Element. This Mission Need Statement responds to two of the four foundations of National Defense Policy; Forward Presence and Crisis Response. The Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) Master Plan dated 28 June 1991, capability numbers 3, 6, 17, and Mission Area Analysis (MAA), 12, Intelligence, dated 25 March 1991, deficiency 2, documents this capability.
2. Mission and Threat Analyses
a. Mission. The Marine Corps deploys MAGTFs throughout the world. These MAGTFs have a requirement to access national and theater intelligence sources during heightened hostilities and wartime to provide commanders with near-real-time (NRT) all source intelligence. The Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) is a near-real-time (NRT) surveillance and targeting system capability employed at the theater level. This platform detects, locates, tracks, and classifies (tracked vs. nontracked) vehicles, both friendly and enemy forces, in the MAGTFs area of operations. Connectivity with the Joint STARS collection platform would provide the MAGTF with NRT data. To receive NRT data from the Joint STARS System, the MAGTF must establish a digital data link with the collection platform. Currently, the Marine Corps does not have this capability. The required initial operational capability is FY96 and the desired full operational capability is FY98.
b. Threat. The Joint STARS data link is a combat information tool which enhances the MAGTF's ability to receive and disseminate intelligence targeting information for operational use. It is not designed to overcome a specific threat. Threat forces may attempt to adversely affect, degrade, or deny use of selected portions of the radio frequency spectrum through the use of electronic warfare (EW) to include the detection and location of radio transmission sources. Radio communications may be severely degraded by nuclear or non-nuclear electronic-magnetic pulses. Terminals could be targeted for physical destruction. Furthermore, directed energy weapons (laser, radio frequency and particle beam) will assist in performing the EW function of jamming, degrading and destroying critical U.S. control elements. The threat to Joint STARS connectivity is documented in the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) classified threat assessment for Joint STARS dated 4 January 1989, which will be updated prior to each program milestone.
3. Nonmateriel Alternatives. There are no changes to doctrine, tactics, organization, or training that will provide this capability to the Marine Corps.
4. Potential Materiel Alternatives
a. Nondevelopmental solution using one of the following systems:
(1) Ground Station Module (GSM) Block I. GSM Block I is a U.S. Army fielded system mounted on a five-ton truck. It is dedicated to achieving Joint STARS aircraft (E-8) to ground (GSM) connectivity via the Surveillance and Control Data Link (SCDL) and exploit preprocessed Joint STARS data to support the commander. The MAGTF could acquire GSMs and have this capability.
(2) Utilize Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) equipment. The MAGTF could receive TACREPS broadcasted by Joint STARS via JTIDS equipment in the Marine Corps inventory.
(3) Modify the Joint Services Imagery Processing System (JSIPS) Softcopy Exploitation Segment. The Marine Corps JSIPS, currently under development, could be augmented with a Joint STARS data link and terminal.
(4) Modify USMC Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) Block Upgrade. The IAS Block Upgrade, currently under development, could be modified to receive postprocessed Joint STARS data.
b. Join the research and development effort of the Army Light Ground Station Module Block III program. This program is downsizing the GSM to a High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) configuration. The light GSM (2 HMMWV set) would have the same functionality as the medium GSM (5 ton truck) yet would be mounted on the back of a HMMWV (and a HMMWV support vehicle).
a. Mobility and Transportation. Equipment configuration must be small enough to be mountable on racks for use in a vehicle or removable to remote sites.
b. Manpower. Joint STARS equipment will be employed within the existing structure of manpower and military occupational specialties (MOS). The specific MOS personnel required to operate and maintain Joint STARS equipment will be identified after a Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) determines the best materiel solution for effecting Joint STARS connectivity.
c. Service Support. To the maximum extent possible, general purpose test equipment and common tools resident in the Marine Corps inventory will be used to perform all corrective and preventative maintenance at all authorized levels of maintenance. No new supporting structure will be established to repair and maintain equipment. The system will be supported by existing facilities and maintenance personnel.
d. Operational Environment
(1) Organizational Concept. Terminal equipment and peripheral devices necessary to affect connectivity between Joint STARS and the MAGTF will be employed at the MAGTF Command Element. Joint STARS information will be disseminated NRT throughout the MAGTF via Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) and/or via local area network (LAN) of terminals linked to the GSM that is receiving the preprocessed radar data from the aircraft.
(2) Performance Characteristics. The Joint STARS link will be capable of receiving data directly from the collection platform via a two-way, jam-resistant communications path that is interoperable with MTACCS. After the specific communications path is determined by the COEA process, the remaining performance characteristics will be identified in the Operational Requirements Document.
(3) Weather and Terrain. Terminal and peripheral equipment will be employed in all environmental and weather conditions to include, but not limited to: tropical, desert, temperate, arctic, maritime, forest, jungle, rain, snow, sleet, fog, dust, and sand.
(4) Nuclear Biological and Chemical (NBC). There is no requirement for this equipment to be nuclear hardened. The equipment must survive high altitude electromagnetic pulse, NBC contamination, and be compatible for use in Mission Oriented Protective Posture gear.
e. Training. Training for personnel to employ the equipment will be added to existing courses of instruction for intelligence personnel. Initial fielding will be supported by new equipment training teams. The scope of formal school training of operators/maintainers will be determined at a later date.
f. Logistics. Maintenance support will be established with the Marine Corps organic levels of maintenance.
g. Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Interfaces. Interface requirements for Joint STARS equipment depends on which option is selected by the COEA process. Information derived from Joint STARS reporting must be disseminated NRT throughout the MAGTF down to the targeting and intelligence staffs at the major subordinate commands.
h. Mapping, Charting and Geodesy Support. None applicable.