AIR FORCE PAMPHLET 14- 210 Intelligence

Attachment 1


AFDD 1- 1, Basic Air and Space Doctrine of the United States Air Force

Cohen, Eliot A., Gulf War Air Power Survey, Vol I: Planning and Command and Control; 1993

Joint Publication 1- 02, DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, March 23, 1994

FM 6- 20- 10, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for the Targeting Process, March 29, 1990

TH 61A1- 1- 1- 1, Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual Air to Surface, Vol I & II, December 1980

Robin Higham, Air Power: A Concise History, New York: St. Martin's Press 1972, 21- 23

Edgar S. Gorrell, "Early History of the Strategical Section," in The U. S. Air Service in World War I. Vol. 2, ed. Maurer Maurer (Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1978), 143.

U. S. Bombing Survey in The U. S. Air Service in World War I. Vol. 4, ed. Maurer Maurer (Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1978), 501- 502.

Maurer Maurer, ed., The U. S. Air Service in World War I. Vol. 3 (Washington D. C.: Government Print-ing Office, 1978), 215.

"Provisional Manual of Operations," in The U. S. Air Service in World War I. Vol. 2, ed. Maurer Maurer (Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1978), 279.

Maj T. D. Milling, Air Service Assistant Commandant, "The Air Service Tactical School: Its Function and Operation," Langley Field, Virginia: Air Service Tactical School, 1924.

Robert T. Finney, History of the Air Corps Tactical School 1920- 1940 (Maxwell AFB, Al: Air University 1955), 31.

Haywood S. Hansell, The Strategic Air War Against Germany and Japan (Washington D. C.: Office of Air Force History, 1986), 10- 11,19, 21- 22.

Harold B. Hinton, Air Victory: The Men and the Machines, with a Foreword by Barton K. Yount (New York: H Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1948), 145- 146.

William A. Goss, "The AAF," in The Army Air Forces In World War II, Vol. 6, ed. Wesley Frank Craven and James Lea Cate (Washington D. C.: Office of Air Force History 1983) 40.

Thomas H. Greer, "Other Training Programs," in Craven Vol 6, 687. Alfred Goldberg, "Establishment of the Eighth Air Force in the United Kingdom," in Craven Vol 1 624. Robert Frank Futrell, "US Army Air Forces Intelligence in the Second World War," in The Conduct of the Air War in the Second World War, ed. Horst Boog (New York: St Martin's Press 1988), 539, 547- 548.

Arthur B. Ferguson, "The CBO Plan," Craven Vol 2, 352- 354. James Lowe, "Intelligence in the Selection of Strategic Target Systems" (lecture, Air War College, Max-well field, AL, 1946) 102

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George C. McDonald, "U. S. Air Force Intelligence Prior to and During World War II and Today" (lec-ture, Air War College, Maxwell Field, Al, 1947), 5.

The United States Strategic Bombing Surveys (European and Pacific Wars) (Maxwell AFB, Al: Air Uni-versity Press, 1987), 39 & 117.

United States Air Force Operations in the Korean Conflict 25 June - 1 November 1950 (Maxwell AFB, Al: Air University, 1952), 52- 53, 84.

Korean War Report . Vol. 2. (Far East Air Force (FAEF) Report, ca. 1955), 141- 142, 146- 147. United States Air Force Operations in the Korean Conflict, 1 July 1952-- 27 July 1953 (Maxwell AFB, Al: Air University, 1956), 10.

Robert Frank Futrell, Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force 1961 -1984, Vol. 2 (Maxwell AFB, Al: Air University Press, 1989), 304.

USAF Intelligence Activities in Support of Operations in Southeast Asia 1 January 1965 - 31 March 1968 (Maxwell AFB, Al: Air University, 1972), 8.

Thomas E. Lee & Samuel M. Taylor, "Air Force Target Intelligence Enhancement Program," (technical note, Bolling AFB, D. C.: Air Force Intelligence Service, 1985), 4.

AFM 2- 1, Tactical Air Operations -- Counter Air, Close Air Support and Interdiction John Heidrick, "9TIS/ INT Planning Procedures for Internal Look- 90 and Operation Desert Shield," undated paper provided to author for the Gulf War Air Power Survey (GWAPS) and MFR (S), "USAF/ INT Targeting/ MC& G Support to DESERT SHIELD," Col James R. Blackburn, USAF/ INT, 17 October 1990.

DIA Memo, From the Chief DB- 6 to VP, subj: "Overall Perspective on Target Materials Available at Cri-sis Initiation," dated 29 August 1990.

Consolidated Tactical Target Materials Catalog (TTMC) Langley AFB, VA: 480 Tactical Intelligence Group, 1990.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

AAA— Anti Aircraft Artillery
ACCI— Air Combat Command Instruction
ACFT— Aircraft
ACINT— Acoustic Intelligence (non compressed fluids)
ACO— Airspace Control Order
ACOUSTINT— Acoustic Intelligence (compressed fluids)
ACTS— Air Corps Tactical School
ADRG— ARC Digitized Raster Graphics
AFDD— Air Force Doctrine Document
AFIWC— Air Force Information Warfare Center
AFM— Air Force Manual (old designation) 103

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AFMSS— Air Force Mission Support System
AFSST— Air Force Space Support Teams
AI— Air Interdiction
AIF— Automated Installation Intelligence File
AIS— Air Intelligence Squadron
AOC— Air Operations Center
AOR— Area of Responsibility
APPS— Analytical Photogrammetric Positioning System
APS— Advanced Planning System
ASOC— Air Support Operations Center
ASTS— Air Service Tactical School
ASW— Antisubmarine Warfare
ATC— Air Target Chart
ATM— Air Target Material
ATMP— Air Target Materials Program
ATO— Air Tasking Order
ATTG— Automated Tactical Target Graphic
AWOP— Automated Weaponeering Optimization Program
AWPD— Air War Plans Division
BDA— Battle Damage Assessment
BEI— Bridge Effectiveness Index
BTG— Basic Target Graphic
C2W— Command and Control Warfare
C3CM— Command, Control, Communications Countermeasures
C3I— Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
C4I— Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence
CA— Counter Air; Combat Assessment
CAS— Close Air Support
CASSUM— CAS Summary Message
CBU— Cluster Bomb Unit

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CEP— Circular Error Probable
CI— Counterintelligence or Counterinformation
CIA— Central Intelligence Agency
CICV— Combined Intelligence Center Vietnam
CINC— Commander in Chief
COA— Committee of Operations Analysts
COM— Collection Operations Management
COMINT— Communications Intelligence
CONOP— Concept of Operations
CONPLAN— Concept Plan (operation plan in concept format)
CONUS— Continental United States
CPFL— Contingency Planning Facilities List
CR— Collection Requirement
CRC— Control and Reporting Center
CRM— Collection Requirement Management
CSAF— Chief of Staff Air Force
CSAR— Combat Search and Rescue
CSS— Central Security Service
CTAPS— Contingency Theater Automated Planning System
DC— Crater Diameter
DCA— Defensive Counter Air
DCI— Defensive counterinformation
DCS/ I— Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence
DEP— Deflection Error Probable
DGZ— Desired Ground Zero
DIAM— Defense Intelligence Agency Manual
DMPI— Desired Mean Point of Impact
DPI— Desired Point of Impact
DPPDB— Digital Point Positioning Data Base
DPS— Digital Production System
DTED— Digital Terrain Elevation Data
ECCM— Electronic Counter Countermeasure 105

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ECEF— Earth- Centered, Earth- Fixed
ECM— Electronic Countermeasure
EEI— Essential Elements of Information
ELINT— Electronics Intelligence
EMD— Effective Miss Distance
EMP— Electromagnetic Pulse
EOB— Electronic Order of Battle
EW— Early Warning
FAC— Facility
FACP— Forward Air Control Party
FC— Fire Control
FEAF— Far East Air Force
FEBA— Forward Edge of Battle Area
FEC— Far East Command
FIS— Foreign Instrumentation Signals
FIWC— Fleet Information Warfare Center
FLIP— Flight Information Publication
FLOT— Forward Line of Own Troops
FSCL— Fire Support Coordination Line
GCI— Ground Control Intercept
GGI& S— Global Geospatial Information and Services
GIIPS— Geographic Installation Intelligence Production Specifications
GPS— Global Positioning System
HUMINT— Human Intelligence
IDB— Integrated Data Base
IFR— Instrument Flight Rules
IMINT— Imagery Intelligence
INS— Inertial Navigation System
INSCOM— United States Army Intelligence and Security Command
INTELINK— Intelligence Link (INTERNET for Intelligence)
IO— Information Operations
IP— Initial Point 106

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IPA— Image Product Archive
ITO— Integrated Tasking Order
IW— Information Warfare
IWST— Information Warfare Support Teams
JAADC— Joint Area Air Defense Commander
JAC— Joint Analysis Center
JAG— Judge Advocate General
JC2WC— Joint Command and Control Warfare Center
JCS— Joint Chiefs of Staff
JDAM— Joint Direct Attack Munition
JDTM— Joint Digital Target Material
JFACC— Joint Force Air Component Commander
JFC— Joint Force Commander
JFSOCC— Joint Force Special Operations Component Commander
JIC— Joint Intelligence Center
JMEM— Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual
JOPS— Joint Operational Planning System
JSTARS— Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System
JTCG— Joint Target Coordination Board
JTF— Joint Task Force
LASINT— Laser Intelligence
LE— Linear Error
LIWA— Land Information Warfare Activity
LOAC— Law of Armed Conflict
MA— Mission Assessment
MACV— Military Assistance Command Vietnam
MAE— Mean Area Of Effectiveness
MASINT— Measurement and Signature Intelligence
MC& G— Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy
MEA— Munitions Effectiveness Assessment
MGRS— Military Grid Reference System
MIDB— Modernized Integrated Data Base 107

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MISREP— Mission Report
MK—" Mark" item identification
MPI— Mean Points of Impact
MPS— Mission Planning Section
MRC— Major Regional Conflict
NCA— National Command Authority
NCAA— Nonnuclear Consumables Annual Analysis
NH— Number of Hits
NIMA— National Imagery and Mapping Agency
NITFS— National Imagery Transmission Format Standard
NIWA— Naval Information Warfare Activity
NM— Nautical Mile
NSA— National Security Agency
NSG— Naval Security Group
NTB— National Target Base
NUCINT— Nuclear Intelligence
OAP— Offset Aim Point
OCI— Offensive Counterinformation
OPLAN— Operations Plan
OPTINT— Optical Intelligence
OTG— Operational Target Graphic
PD— Probability of Damage
PGC— Precise Geopositioning Capability
PGM— Precision- Guided Munition
POC— Point of Contact
POL— Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants
PPDB— Point Positioning Data Base
PRC— Peoples Republic of China
PRGB— Point Reference Guide Book
PRSL— Precise Radar Significant Location
PSB— Post Strike Base
PSYOP— Psychological Operations 108

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QRG— Quick Response Graphic
RAAP— Rapid Application of Airpower
RADINT— Radar Intelligence
REP— Range Error Probable
RFI— Request for Information
RFP— Request for Procurement/ Proposal
RINT— Unintentional Radiation Intelligence
ROE— Rules of Engagement
RSAC— Radar Significant Analysis Code
RSPL— Radar Significant Power Line
SAM— Surface- to- Air Missile
SAR— Search and Rescue
SATCOM— Satellite Communications
SCADA— Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SEAD— Suppression of Enemy Air Defense
SECAF— Secretary of the Air Force
SEP— Spherical Error Probable
SIGINT— Signals Intelligence
SIOP— Single Integrated Operational Plan
SIPRNET— SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network
SLAR— Sidelooking Airborne Radar
SSM— Surface- to- Surface Missile
SSPD— Single Shot Probability of Damage
STRATCOM— Strategic Command
TACC— Tactical Air Control Center
TACS— Theater Air Control System
TARBUL— Target Bulletin
TDI— Target Data Inventory
TELINT— Telemetry Intelligence
TERCOM— Terrain Contour Matching
TI— Target Intelligence
TIHB— Target Intelligence Handbook 109

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TLAM— Tomahawk Land Attack Missile
TLE— Target Location Error
TM— Target Material
TMP— Target Materials Program
TMPG— Target Materials Producers Group
TMUG— Target Materials Users Group
TOT— Time on Target
TPFDL— Time- Phased Force and Deployment List
TTG— Training Target Graphic
TTM— Tactical Target Material
TTMC— Tactical Target Materials Catalog
TTMP— Tactical Target Materials Program
TVS— Target Value System
UAV— Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UGS— Unattended Ground Sensors
USCENTAF— United States Central Command Air Forces
USCENTCOM— United States Central Command
USSBS— United States Strategic Bombing Surveys
UTM— Universal Transverse Mercator (map projection)
UW— Unconventional Warfare
VA— Vulnerable Area
VFR— Visual Flight Rules
VN— Vulnerability Number
WAC— World Aeronautical Chart
WGS— World Geodetic System
WPN— Weapon


ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS— The changes to the original or designed characteristics of an object or area.

ACTUAL GROUND ZERO— The point on the surface of the earth at, or vertically below or above, the center of actual nuclear detonation. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

ACTUAL RANGE— In bombing, the horizontal distance a bomb travels from the instant of release until the time of impact. 110

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AFTERWINDS— Wind currents set up in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion directed toward the burst center, resulting from the updraft accompanying the rise of the fireball. (DoD)

a. Coordinated -- A combination of two or more types of air attack (dive, glide, low- level) in one strike, using one or more types of aircraft.

b. Deferred-- A procedure in which attack groups rendezvous as a single unit. It is used when attack groups are launched from more than one station with their departure on the mission being delayed pending further orders.

c. Divided-- A method of delivering a coordinated air attack which consists of holding the units in close tactical concentration up to a point, then splitting them to attack an objective from different directions. (DoD, IADB)

a. An explosion of a bomb or projectile above the surface, as distinguished from an explosion on contact with the surface or after penetration.

b. (Nuclear) The explosion of a nuclear weapon in the air, at a height greater than the maximum radius of the fireball. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

AIRSPEED— The speed of an aircraft relative to its surrounding air mass. (DoD, IADB) AIR TARGET CHART— Standard medium scale (1: 200,000) charts produced for areas of Korea, the Former Soviet Union, PRC, Europe, Turkey, and Southeast Asia, as well as for selected training areas in the US. These charts provide the cartographic, intelligence, and radar return information needed to plan, train, brief, and execute either visual or radar bombing operations at any altitude. The reverse of each sheet includes textual data describing installations depicted in the area. (DoD)

AIR TARGET MATERIALS PROGRAM (ATMP)— The ATMP includes products in the form of target graphics and supporting documents required for visual and radar bombing training and operations at both high and low altitudes. (DoD)

AIR TARGET MOSAIC— A large scale mosaic providing photographic coverage of an area and permitting comprehensive portrayal of pertinent target detail. These mosaics are used for intelligence study and in planning and briefing air operations. (DoD)

ALLOCATION— The designation of specific numbers and types of aircraft sorties for use during a specified time period or for carrying out an assigned task. (DoD, IADB)

APPORTIONMENT— Dividing of air resources among the various missions, that is, close air support, interdiction, and counter- air. (DoD)

AREA BOMBING— Bombing of a target which is in effect a general area rather than a small or pinpoint target. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

AREA TARGET— A large area usually composed of multiple elements or components. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

ARMING SYSTEM— That portion of a weapon which serves to ready (arm), safe, or re- safe (disarm) the firing system and fuzing system and which may actuate devices in the nuclear system. (DoD, IADB)

ASSESSMENT— Analysis of the security, effectiveness, and potential of an existing or planned 111

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intelligence activity. (DoD, IADB)

a. A specified number of complete nuclear rounds authorized for expenditure by a commander. An assignment may be made for a specific period of time, for a phase of an operation, or to accom-plish a particular mission. (DoD)

b. Commitment of a particular weapon system or systems against a particular target. (DoD)

ASSURED DESTRUCTION— The capability to destroy an aggressor as a viable society, even after a well- planned and executed surprise attack on our forces. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

AUTOMATED TACTICAL TARGET GRAPHIC (ATTG)— A tactical target materials item which provides aerial photographic coverage of a target and a limited area surrounding it at a scale permitting optimum identification of target detail. The ATTG also provides textual intelligence on a sheet separate from the graphic portion. ATTGs cover single targets and come in two forms: a lithographic sheet and a miniaturized version of an aperture card. The majority of ATTGs have been replaced by the Basic Target Graphic. (DoD)

BALLISTIC DEFLECTION ERROR— That distance, expressed in feet, in deflection measured from the mean point of impact that contains one quarter of the impact points where aiming error is disregarded and only random errors, such as are due to manufacturing tolerances and weapon stability characteristics, are considered. (TIN)

BALLISTIC DISPERSION— The variation of a path of a bomb or projectile which is attributed to physical tolerances in the weapon dimensions and to the stability of the weapon. The error produced by this variability is commonly stated as standard deviation in range and deflection of the error with respect to the mean point of impact.

BALLISTIC RANGE ERROR— That distance, expressed in feet, measured from the mean point of impact that contains one quarter of the impact points when aiming error is disregarded and only random errors, such as are due to manufacturing tolerances and weapon stability characteristics are considered. (TIN)

BASIC ENCYCLOPEDIA— A compendium of installation information describing every identified installation that has an active function or valid capacity and is of interest to intelligence agencies, particularly to the operational and planning staffs of the unified and specified commands. (DoD)

BLAST LINE— A horizontal radial line on the surface of the earth originating at ground zero on which measurements of blast from an explosion are taken. (DoD, IADB)

BOMBING ANGLE— The angle between the vertical and a line joining the aircraft to what would be the point of impact of a bomb released from it at that instant. (DoD, NATO)

BOMB, CONVENTIONAL— Any nonnuclear bomb designed for explosive, flame, penetration, smoke, or photoflash effect, as distinguished from a chemical or biological bomb.

BOMB DAMAGE ASSESSMENT— The determination of the effect of all air attacks on targets (for example, bombs, rockets, or strafe). (DoD, IADB)

BOMB IMPACT PLOT— A graphic representation of the target area, usually a pre- strike air photograph, on which prominent dots are plotted to mark the impact or detonation points of bombs dropped on a specific bombing attack. (DoD, IADB) 112

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a. 50% CIRCULAR ERROR-- The radius of a circle, with a center at a desired mean point of impact, which contains half the ordnance independently aimed to hit the desired mean point of impact. (NATO, CENTO, IADB)

b. 50% DEFLECTION ERROR-- Half the distance between two lines, drawn parallel to the aircraft's track and equidistant from the mean point of impact, which contains half the ordnance indepen-dently aimed to hit the desired mean point of impact. (NATO, CENTO, IADB)

NOTE: The above bombing errors should imply overall errors unless otherwise stipulated by inclusion of the word "random" or "systematic" where necessary. (NATO, CENTO, IADB)

BOMBING HEIGHT— Distance above the target at the moment of bomb release, measured vertically from the target to the level of the bombing aircraft. (NATO, CENTO, IADB)

BOMB LINE— An imaginary line arranged, if possible, to follow well- defined geographical features, prescribed by the troop commander and coordinated with the Air Force commander, forward of which Air Forces are free to attack targets without danger to or reference to ground forces. Behind the line all attacks must be coordinated with the appropriate troop commander.

BOMB RELEASE LINE— An imaginary line around a defended area or objective over which an aircraft should release its bombs in order to obtain a hit in an area or objective. (DoD, NATO, IADB)

BOMB RELEASE POINT— The point in space at which bombs must be released to reach the desired point of detonation. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

BREAKAWAY— The onset of a condition in which the shock front moves away from the exterior of the expanding fireball produced by the explosion of a nuclear weapon. (DOD, NATO, CENTO)

a. The horizontal distance which when added to the radius of safety will give the desired assurance that the specified degree of risk will not be exceeded. The buffer distance is normally expressed quantitatively in multiples of delivery error.

b. The vertical distance which is added to the fallout safe height of burst in order to determine a desired height of burst which will provide the desired assurance that militarily significant fallout will not occur. It is normally expressed in multiples of the vertical error. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

C2 ATTACK— Any action against any element of the enemy's command and control system. CARPET BOMBING— The progressive distribution of a mass bomb load upon an area defined by designated boundaries, in such a manner as to inflict damage to all portions thereof. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

CIRCULAR ERROR— An error associated with delivery of munitions on a target. It is the distance measured between the desired and actual points of impact of a munition. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

a. An indicator of the delivery accuracy of a weapon system, used as a factor in determining proba-ble damage to a target. It is the radius of a circle within which half of the missiles or projectiles are expected to fall. 113

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b. An indicator of the accuracy of a missile or projectile, used as a factor in determining probable damage to a target. It is the radius of a circle within which half of the missiles or projectiles are expected to fall.

c. A measure of aiming accuracy expressed in feet. Its value is estimated by the radius of a circle, with its center at the mean point of impact containing half of the impact points of independently aimed bombs or half of the mean points of impact (MPI) resulting from independent aiming oper-ations. The circular error probable is associated with the circular normal distribution with an aim-ing error standard deviation equal to 0.849 CEP and is a meaningful measure of accuracy if the impact pattern is reasonably circular. As the pattern becomes more elliptical, Deflection Error Probable (DEP) and Range Error Probable (REP) become more accurate descriptions of the pat-tern (DOD, IADB)

CLEAN WEAPON— A nuclear weapon in which measures have been taken to reduce the amount of residual radioactivity relative to a "normal" weapon of the same energy yield. (NATO, CENTO, IADB)

COLLATERAL DAMAGE— The damage to surrounding resources, either military or non- military, as the result of actions or strikes directed specifically against enemy forces or military facilities. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

COMMAND and CONTROL— The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned forces in the accomplishment of the mission.

COMPLETE ROUND— A term applied to an assemblage of explosive and non- explosive components designed to perform a specific function at the time and under the conditions desired. Examples of complete rounds are:

a. Separate loading-- consisting of a primer, propelling charge, and except for blank ammunition, a projectile and fuze;

b. Fixed or semifixed-- consisting of a primer, propelling charge, cartridge case, a projectile, and a fuze except when solid projectiles are used;

c. Bomb-- consisting of all component parts required to drop and function the bomb once;

d. Missile-- consisting of a complete warhead section and a missile body with its associated compo-nents and propellants; and

e. Rocket-- consisting of all components necessary, for it to function.

CONTACT BURST PRECLUSION— a fuzing arrangement which prevents an unwanted surface burst in the event of failure of the airburst fuze. (DOD)

CONTAMINATION— The deposit and/ or absorption of radioactive material, biological, or chemical agents on and by structures, areas, personnel, or objects. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

CONTINGENCY PLANNING FACILITIES LIST (CPFL)— A joint Defense Intelligence Agency/ unified and specified command program for the production and maintenance of current target documentation of all countries of contingency planning interest to United States military planners. (DOD)

CONTINUOUSLY COMPUTED RELEASE POINT— Solution of the weapon delivery release point by continuous prediction of the release point for a given set of ballistics, altitudes, and airspeeds. (NATO)

CONTROLLED EFFECTS NUCLEAR WEAPONS— Nuclear weapons designed to achieve 114

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variation in the intensity of specific effects other than normal blast effect. (DOD)

COUNTERFORCE— The employment of strategic air and missile forces in an effort to destroy or render impotent, selected military capabilities of an enemy force under any of the circumstances by which hostilities may be initiated. (DOD, IADB)

COUNTERINFORMATION— Actions designed to establish a desired degree of information superiority to enable friendly use of the information environment while impeding the use of the same environment by the adversary. Includes offensive and defensive counterinformation.

COUNTERVALUE— The employment of strategic air and missile forces against an enemy's urban industrial economic base in an attempt to destroy his ability or will to support the war- making effort. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

DAMAGE CRITERIA— The critical levels of various effects such as blast procedure and thermal radiation required to achieve specified levels of damage. (DOD, IADB)

DAMAGE MECHANISMS— Characteristics of the effects of the warhead or munition that is delivered (for example, fragmentation, incendiary, etc.).

DEFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION— Actions protecting our military information functions. It includes security measures (information assurance and operations security), counterintelligence, counterdeception, and counterpsychological operations.

DEFLECTION ERROR— An error associated with delivery of munitions on a target. It is the distance measured between an imaginary line drawn through the desired point of impact and an imaginary line drawn through the actual point of impact, both lines drawn parallel to the axis of attack. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

a. A value equal to half the distance between two imaginary lines which are drawn parallel to the aircraft's track, are equidistant from the desired point of impact, and contain half the impact points of independently aimed weapons. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

b. A measure of aiming accuracy expressed in feet. Its value is estimated by half the distance between two lines, drawn parallel to the aircraft's track, that are equidistant from the desired mean point of impact and contain half the impact points resulting from independent aiming operations. If the impact pattern is bivariant normal as is usual, the aiming error standard deviation is equal to 1.483 DEP. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

DEFLECTION SINGLE SHOT PROBABILITY OF DAMAGE— The probability of achieving a specified damage criterion against a target assuming no range error and a weapon reliability of 100 percent. (TIN)

DEGREE OF RISK (NUCLEAR)— As specified by the commander, the risk to which friendly forces may be subjected from the effects of the detonation of a nuclear weapon used in the attack of a close- in enemy target; acceptable degrees of risk under differing tactical conditions are emergency, moderate, and acceptable. (DOD, IADB)

DESIRED GROUND ZERO— The point on the surface of the earth at, or vertically above or below, the center of a planned nuclear detonation. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

DESIRED MEAN POINT OF IMPACT— The planned point whose coordinates are the arithmetic 115

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means of the coordinates of the separate points of impact of a finite number of projectiles fired or released at the same aiming point under a given set of conditions.

a. The distance by which a point of impact or burst misses the target.
b. The angular difference between magnetic and compass headings. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

DIRECT INFORMATION WARFARE— Changing the adversary's information without involving the intervening perceptive and analytical functions.

DIRTY WEAPON— A weapon which produces a larger amount of residual radioactivity than a "normal" weapon of the same energy yield.

DISPERSION ERROR— The distance from the point of impact or burst of a round to the mean point of impact or burst. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

DIVE TOSS— A weapon delivery maneuver in which the aircraft is dived to a predetermined altitude and point in space, pulled up, and the weapon released in such a way that it is tossed into the target.

DYNAMIC PRESSURE— Pressure resulting from some medium in motion, such as the air following a shock front of a blast wave. (DOD, NATO, CENTO)

EFFECTIVE MISS DISTANCE— The distance which munitions may miss the desired point of impact or detonation and still cause the desired damage to the target. (DOD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

EFFECTIVE PATTERN LENGTH— An expression of the length of the stick plus twice the radius of the cluster for stick- delivered cluster munitions. (TIN)

EFFECTIVE PATTERN WIDTH— An expression of the width of the stick plus the radius of the cluster for stick- delivered cluster munitions. (TIN)

EFFECTIVE TARGET AREA LENGTH— An expression of the length of the target area plus twice the range weapon radius for stick- delivered munitions. (TIN)

EFFECTIVE TARGET AREA WIDTH— An expression of the target area width plus twice the weapon radius in deflection. (TIN)

EFFECTIVE TARGET DIAMETER— An expression of the target diameter plus twice the miss distance within which a miss will produce the desired damage. (TIN)

EFFECTIVE TARGET LENGTH— An expression of the length of the target plus the miss distance within which the weapon will produce the desired damage (or for bridges, the diagonal distance across the bridge along the approach axis). (TIN)

EFFECTIVE TARGET VULNERABLE LENGTH— An expression of the effective target length multiplied by the probability that a hit produces the desired damage. (TIN)

EFFECTIVE TARGET WIDTH— An expression of the width of the target plus the miss distance within which the weapon will produce the desired damage (or for bridges, the width of the bridge perpendicular to the aircraft's approach axis). (TIN)

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION PROPAGATION— The emission or transmission of wave energy; gamma radiation; x- rays; visible, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation; and radar and radio transmissions. (DoD, IADB) 116

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EMERGENCY RISK (NUCLEAR)— A degree of risk where anticipated effects may cause some temporary shock, casualties, and may significantly reduce the unit's combat efficiency. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

ENVIRONMENTAL SCALE FACTOR— A factor to account for the weapon effectiveness degradation due to jungle foliage, tall grass, etc. (TIN)

EXECUTING COMMANDER (NUCLEAR WEAPONS)— A commander to whom nuclear weapons are released for delivery against specific targets or in accordance with approved plans. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

EXO- ATMOSPHERIC BURST (NUCLEAR)— The explosion of a nuclear weapon (above 120 kilometers) where atmospheric interaction is minimal. (DoD, IADB)

FALLOUT— The precipitation to earth of radioactive particulate matter from a nuclear cloud; also applied to the particulate matter itself. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

FALLOUT PREDICTION— An estimate, made before and immediately after a nuclear detonation, of the location and intensity of military significant quantities of radioactive (DoD, IADB)

FALLOUT SAFE HEIGHT OF BURST— The height of burst at or above which no military significant fallout will be prided as a result of a nuclear weapon detonation. (DoD, IADB)

a. A wind vector based on the wind structure from the earth's surface to the highest altitude affecting fallout pattern.

b. A wind vector diagram based on the wind structure from the earth's surface to the highest altitude of interest. (DoD, IADB)

FIRST STRIKE— The first offensive move of a war. (Generally associated with nuclear operations.) (DoD, IADB)

FIRST STRIKE CAPABILITY— The ability of a nation to launch a first strike without receiving unacceptably high damage in return. (TIN)

FIRST USE— The initial use of nuclear weapons by either party of a conflict. This can apply to a first strike or retaliatory strike.

FLASH BURN— A burn caused by excessive exposure of bare skin to thermal radiation. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

FLESHETTE— A small, inert, fin- stabilized missile. A large number may be loaded into a single warhead. (TIN)

FUZE— A device designed to initiate detonation in any type of ammunition by an action such as hydrostatic pressure, target proximity, chemical impact, mechanical time, or a combination of these.

Various types of fuses are:

a. Air nose-- a point- detonating rocket fuze which uses vanes rotated by the air stream to arm itself.

b. Air pressure-- A barometric fuze.

c. All way -- An impact fuze designed to function regardless of its orientation on impact.


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d. Ambient-- A type of proximity fuze which is not activated as a consequence of actual determina-tion of target presence but by a measurement of parameters associated with the environment in which the target is normally found.

e. Fuse and burster-- A combination of fuze and burster for use in a bomb, such as a liquid- filled incendiary bomb, which may be filled in the field.

f. Antidisturbance-- A fuze designed to become armed after the weapon is emplaced, so that any fur-ther movement or disturbance will result in detonation.

g. Antiwithdrawal-- A fuze incorporating an antiwithdrawal device.

h. Barometric-- A fuze that functions as a result of change in the ambient air pressure.

i. Combination-- A fuze combining two different types of fuze mechanisms; especially one combin-ing impact and time mechanisms.

j. Delay-- A fuze incorporating a means of delaying its action after sensing the target. Delay fuses are classified according to the length of time they delay.

k. Electrical-- A fuze which depends upon events of an electrical or electronic nature for its arming and functioning. Such a fuze may not be entirely electrical, but may contain mechanical compo-nents.

1. Electric time-- A fuze in which the time from initiation of action to functioning is controlled electrically.

m. Impact-- A fuze whose action is initiated by the force of impact; also called a contact or percussion fuze.

n. Contact-- A fuze where primary initiation results from actual contact with an object, including such phenomena as impact, crush, tilt, or electrical contact.

o. Inertial-- A fuze using acceleration forces to establish location in trajectory. It senses rate of change in velocity due to thrust or drag forces and transforms this data to a distance measurement by an integrating device or other methods.

p. Influence-- A fuze initiated by changes in the environment of the fuze; for example, magnetic thermal, or movement changes.

q. Long delay-- A type of delay fuze, especially for land mines, in which the fuze action is delayed for a relatively long period of time, up to days.

r. Mechanical-- Any fuze which depends for its arming and functioning on events primarily of a mechan-ical nature such as a clock- type mechanism.

s. Mechanical and superquick-- A mechanical time fuze containing an additional device designed to cause instantaneous activation as a result of impact.

t. Medium delay -- A type of delay fuze, especially for bombs, in which the fuze action is delayed for a period of time between that of a short delay and long delay fuses. This delay is normally four to fifteen seconds.

u. Nondelay-- A fuze that functions as a result of the inertia of a firing pin as the fuze is retarded during penetration of an object. The inertia causes the firing pin to strike the primer, initiating fuze action. This type of fuze is inherently slower in action than the superquick or instantaneous fuze since its action depends upon deceleration of the missile during impact with an object. 118

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v. Nose-- A fuze for use in the forward end (nose) of a bomb or other type of missile.

w. Proximity-- A fuze wherein primary initiation occurs by sensing the presence, distance or direction of an object through the characteristics of the object itself or its environment. This name is preferred over synonymous terms such as VT fuze.

x. Selective delay-- A delay fuze which permits a selection from two or more functioning times.

y. Self- destroying-- A fuze containing a device which causes the projectile bursting charge to detonate if prior functioning has not been caused by object presence or other triggering mechanisms.

z. Superquick-- A type of delay fuze used in bombs in which the fuze action is delayed for a short period of time, usually less than one second.

aa. Tail-- A fuze designed to be inserted in the tail of a bomb.

ab. Time-- A fuze designed to function after the lapse of a predetermined period of time.

ac. VT-- See proximity fuze.

FUZE ERROR— The variation in the fuze functioning time from the intended functioning time. (TIN) FUZE SAFE- ARMING DISTANCE— The distance from the aircraft within which an unintentional warhead burst could result in injury to flight personnel or serious damage to the aircraft. (TIN)

GLIDE BOMBING— The action of bombing a target from an aircraft at dive angles of 30 degrees or less. (DoD, IADB)

GROSS ERROR— A nuclear weapon detonation at such a distance from the desired ground zero as to cause no nuclear damage to the target. (DoD)

GROUND ZERO— The point on the surface of the earth at, or vertically below or above, the center of a planned or actual nuclear detonation. (DoD, NATO CENTO, IADB)

a. The vertical distance from the earth's surface oar target to the point of burst.

b. For nuclear weapons, the optimum height for a particular target (or area) is that at which it is esti-mated a weapon of a specified energy yield will produce a certain desired effect over the maxi-mum possible area. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

HEIGHT OF BURST ERROR PROBABLE— Error in height of burst which missile or projectile fuses may be expected to exceed as often as not.

HIGH ALTITUDE BURST— The explosion of a nuclear weapon which takes place at a height in excess of 100,000 feet. (NATO)

HIGH ALTITUDE BOMBING— Horizontal bombing with the height of release over 15,000 feet. (DoD, IADB)

HORIZONTAL ERROR— The error in range, deflection, or radius, which a weapon may be expected to exceed as often as not. Horizontal error of weapons making a nearly vertical approach to the target is described in terms of circular error probable. Horizontal error of weapons producing elliptical dispersion patterns is expressed in terms of probable error. (DoD NATO, CENTO, IADB)

IMMEDIATE MISSIONS— Those missions for which specific target makeup and location cannot be determined in advance. 119

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IMMEDIATE NUCLEAR SUPPORT— Nuclear support to meet specific requests which arise during the course of a battle and which by their nature cannot be planned in advance. (DoD, IADB)

INDIRECT INFORMATION WARFARE— Changing the adversary's information by creating phenomena that the adversary must then observe and analyze.

INFORMATION— Data and instructions.

INFORMATION ATTACK— Directly corrupting information without visibly changing the physical entity within which it resides.

INFORMATION FUNCTIONS— Any activity involving the acquisition, transmission, storage, or transformation of information.

INFORMATION OPERATIONS— Actions taken to access or affect information or information systems while defending our own.

INFORMATION SUPERIORITY— The ability to collect, control, exploit, and defend information while denying an adversary the ability to do the same.

INFORMATION WARFARE— Information operations conducted primarily during the time of crisis or conflict to achieve information superiority and other military objectives.

a. The first point at which a moving target is located on a plotting board.

b. A well- defined point, easily distinguishable visually or electronically, used as a starting point for the bomb run to the target. (DoD, IADB)

INITIAL RADIATION— The radiation, essentially neutrons and gamma rays, resulting from a nuclear burst and emitted from the fireball within one minute after burst. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

INSTALLATION— A grouping of facilities located in the same vicinity, which support particular functions. (DoD, IADB)

INSTALLATION DATA BASE— A set of intelligence data about installations in a geographic region or functional grouping, usually but not necessarily filed in a computer and used as a base for a variety of intelligence products.

INSTALLATION INTELLIGENCE— The intelligence pertaining to the basic elements of information on an installation which is derived from single or multiple sources of information and used as an intelligence data base.

INSTALLATION LIST— A compendium of objects or areas used primarily for reference purposes. JOINT MUNITIONS EFFECTIVENESS MANUALS— A DoD publication series containing data and methodologies for conventional weaponeering. (TIN)

KILL EFFECTS— Destructive effects available upon detonation of a weapon. Kill effects are blast, penetration, perforation, fragmentation, cratering, earth shock, fire, nuclear and thermal radiation, and combinations of these in varying degrees. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

LASER GUIDED BOMB (LGB)— A general purpose bomb fitted with a special guidance and control kit which will guide the freefall towards a target illuminated by a laser beam. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB) 120

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LASER TARGET DESIGNATION— The use of a laser to direct a light beam onto the target so that appropriate sensors can track or home on the reflected energy.

LAYDOWN BOMBING— A very low level bombing technique wherein delay fuzes or devices are used to allow the attacker to escape the effects of the bomb. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

LINEAR TARGET— A target characterized by a long and narrow shape; for example, a runway or railroad track.

LOFT BOMBING— A method of bombing in which the delivery aircraft approaches the target at a very low altitude, makes a definite pull- up at a given point, releases the bomb at a predetermined point during the pull- up, and tosses the bomb onto the target. (DoD, IADB)

LOW AIRBURST— The fallout safe height of burst for a nuclear weapon which maximizes damage to or casualties on surface targets. (DoD, IADB)

LOW ANGLE DROGUE DELIVERY (LADD)— A method of bombing that employs a timed release system based upon a ground reference point on a target. (TIN)

MACH STEM— The shock front formed by the fusion of the incident and reflected shock fronts from an explosion. The term is generally used with reference to a blast wave, propagated in the air, reflected at the surface of the earth. In the ideal case, the Mach stem is perpendicular to the reflecting surface and slightly convex. Also known as Mach front. (DoD, NATO, CENTO)

MEAN AREA OF EFFECTIVENESS (MAE)— A measurement, in square feet, of an abstract area determined by dividing the area affected by a weapon into small elements and, finally, summing the product of the probability of damage within each element and the area of each element. MAE depends upon target vulnerability, weapon characteristics, impact velocity, weapon angle of fall, and burst height. (DoD, NATO, CENTO)

MEAN POINT OF IMPACT:— a. The point whose coordinates are the arithmetic means of the coordinates of the separate points of impact of a finite number of projectiles fired or released at the same aiming point under a given set of conditions.

b. The point that has as its range and deflection coordinates the arithmetic means of the range and deflection coordinates and the individual weapon impact points. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

MEDIUM ALTITUDE BOMBING— Horizontal bombing with the height of release between 9,000 and 14,000 feet. (DoD, IADB)

MEGATON WEAPON— A nuclear weapon, the yield of which is measured in millions of tons of TNT explosive equivalents. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

MILITARY INFORMATION FUNCTION— Any information function supporting and enhancing the employment of military forces.

MILITARILY SIGNIFICANT FALLOUT— Radioactive contamination capable of inflicting radiation doses to personnel which may result in a reduction of their combat effectiveness. (DoD, IADB)

MINIMUM ALTITUDE BOMBING— Horizontal or glide bombing with the height of release under 900 feet. It includes masthead bombing, which is sometimes erroneously referred to as skip bombing. (DoD, IADB) 121

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MINIMUM SAFE DISTANCE (MSD)—( NUCLEAR)-- The sum of the radius of safety and buffer distance. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

MISSION PLANNING— Premission preparation to a crew with all necessary information and material to successfully deliver a weapon against an assigned target. (TIN)

MODERATE DAMAGE— Damage which prevents the use of equipment or installations until extensive repairs are made. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

MODERATE RISK (NUCLEAR)— A degree of risk where anticipated effects are tolerable, or at worst, a minor nuisance. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

MUNITION:— a. In a broad sense, any and all supplies and equipment required to conduct offensive or defensive war, including war machines, ammunition, transport, etc.

b. In a restricted sense, ordnance.

MUNITIONS DELIVERY ERROR— An error associated with the delivery of munitions on a target which occurs after release or launch of the weapon. The error is measured in distance between the desired and actual points of impact. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

NATIONAL STRATEGIC TARGET LIST (NSTL)— A listing of all installations of strategic targeting importance.

NATIONAL TARGET BASE— The JSTPS produced and maintained file of installations which, individually and collectively, meet the requirements for achieving the national targeting objectives specified in the JCS guidance as implemented in the SIOP or the theater nuclear employment plans of the unified and specified commands.

NEGLIGIBLE RISK (NUCLEAR)— A degree of risk where personnel are reasonably safe, with the exceptions of dazzle or temporary loss of night vision. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

NUCLEAR COORDINATION— A broad term encompassing all the actions involved with planning nuclear strikes, including liaisons between commanders for the purpose of satisfying support requirements or because of the extension of weapons effects into the territory of another. (DoD, IADB)

NUCLEAR DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS— The determination of the damage effects to the population, forces, and resources resulting from nuclear attack. It is performed during the trans- attack and post- attack periods. It does not include the function of evaluating the operational significance of nuclear damage assessments. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

NUCLEAR WARNING MESSAGE— A warning message which must be disseminated to all affected forces any time a nuclear weapon is to be detonated if effects of the weapon will have impact on those forces. (DoD, IADB)

NUCLEAR YIELDS— The energy released in the detonation of a nuclear weapon, measured in terms of the kilotons or megatons of TNT required to produce the same energy release. Yields are categorized as:

a. Very low-- less than 1 kiloton.
b. Low-- 1 kiloton to 10 kilotons.
c. Medium-- over 10 kilotons to 50 kilotons.
d. High-- over 50 kilotons to 500 kilotons.

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e. Very high -- over 500 kilotons. (NATO CENTO) OFFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION— Actions taken to affect an adversary's military information functions. It includes psychological operations (PSYOP), electronic warfare, military deception, physical attack, and information attack.

OFFSET AIMING POINT (OAP)— The radar significant ground fix point used in the offset bombing mode. (TIN)

OFFSET BOMBING— Any bombing procedure which employs a reference or aiming point rather than the actual target. This type of bombing is employed when the target cannot be seen or is a poor reference point. (NATO)

ON- CALL TARGET— A planned nuclear target other than a scheduled nuclear target for which a need can be anticipated but which will be delivered on request rather than at a specific time. Coordination and warning of friendly troops are mandatory. (DoD, IADB)

OPTIMUM HEIGHT OF BURST— For nuclear weapons the height of burst for a particular target or area is that at which it is estimated a weapon of a specified energy yield will produce a certain desired effect over the maximum possible area. (DoD, NATO, IADB)

OVERPRESSURE— The pressure resulting from the blast wave of an explosion. It is referred to as "positive" when it exceeds atmospheric pressure and "negative" when less than atmospheric pressure. (DoD

NATO, CENTO, IADB) OVER- THE- SHOULDER BOMBING— A special case of loft bombing, where the bomb is released past the vertical in order that the bomb may be thrown back to the target. This method is also known as the Low Altitude Bombing System (LABS). (DoD, IADB)

PEAK OVERPRESSURE— The maximum value of overpressure at a given location which is generally experienced at the instant the shock (or blast) wave reaches that location. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

PEAK PRESSURE— The measure of the maximum force exerted against an object by a blast wave and equals the pressure exerted multiplied by the area over which it acts.

PERMISSIVE ACTION LINK— A device included in or attached to a nuclear weapon system to preclude arming or launching until the insertion of a prescribed discrete code or combination. (DoD)

PLANNED TARGET (NUCLEAR)— A nuclear target planned on an area or point in which a need is anticipated. A planned nuclear target may be scheduled or on call, and firing data may or may not be determined in advance. (DoD, IADB)

POINT TARGET—: a. A target of such small dimensions that it requires the accurate placement of ordnance in order to neutralize or destroy it.

b. (NUCLEAR) A target in which the ratio of radius of damage to target radius is equal to or greater than 5. (DoD, IADB)

POTENTIAL TARGETS— An enemy entity, one that satisfies the foregoing criteria, does not become a target until military action is planned against it. That action may include capture, destruction, disruption, degradation, neutralization, or exploitation. 123

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PRECAUTIONARY LAUNCH— The launching of nuclear loaded aircraft under imminent nuclear attack so as to preclude friendly aircraft destruction and loss of weapons on the ground or carrier. (DoD)

PRECURSOR— A pressure wave which precedes the main blast wave of a nuclear explosion. (DoD, NESN, NFSN, IADB)

PREPLANNED MISSIONS— Those missions for which a requirement can be foreseen, thereby permitting detailed planning and coordination.

PREPLANNED NUCLEAR SUPPORT— Nuclear support planned in advance of operations. (DoD, IADB)

PROBABILITY OF DAMAGE— The probability that damage will occur to a target expressed as a percentage or as a decimal. (DoD, NATO, CENTO IADB)

PROBABILITY OF PERISHABILITY— The likelihood that a target has changed significantly within the time parameters of the established targeting time budget.

PROJECTILE— An object projected by an applied exterior force and continuing in motion by virtue of its own inertia, as a bullet, shell, or grenade. Also applied to rockets and guided missiles. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

RADIAL ERROR— An error associated with delivery of munitions on a target. It is the distance between the desired point of impact and actual point of impact, both points projected and measured on an imaginary plane drawn perpendicularly to the flight path of the munition.

RAD— Unit of absorbed dose of radiation. It represents the absorption of 100 ergs of nuclear (or ionizing) radiation per gram of the absorbing material or tissue. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

RADIUS OF DAMAGE— The distance from ground zero at which there is a 0.50 probability of achieving the desired damage. (DoD, IADB)

RADIUS OF SAFETY— The horizontal distance from ground zero beyond which the weapon effects on friendly troops are acceptable. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

RAINOUT— Radioactive material in the atmosphere brought down by precipitation. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

REFLECTED SHOCK WAVE— When a shock wave traveling in a medium strikes the interface between this medium and a denser medium, part of the energy of the shock wave in the denser medium and the remainder of the energy results in the formation of a reflected shock wave which travels back through the less dense medium. (DoD, IADB)

RELEASING COMMANDER (NUCLEAR WEAPONS)— A commander who has been delegated authority to approve the use of nuclear weapons within prescribed limits. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

REM (ROENTGEN EQUIVALENT MAMMAL)— One REM is the quantity of ionizing radiation of any type which, when absorbed by men or other mammals produces a physiological effect equivalent to that produced by the absorption of one roentgen of X- ray or gamma radiation. (DoD, IADB)

RESIDUAL RADIATION— Nuclear radiation caused by fallout, radioactive material dispersed artificially, or irradiation which results from a nuclear explosion and persists longer than one minute after burst. (NATO, CENTO)

RULES OF ENGAGEMENT— Directives issued by competent military authority which specify the 124

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circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. (NATO)

SAFE BURST HEIGHT— The height of burst at or above which the level of fallout, or damage to ground installations is at a predetermined level acceptable to the military commander. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

SALTED WEAPON— A nuclear weapon which has, in addition to its normal components, certain elements or isotopes which capture neutrons at the time of the explosion and produce radioactive products over and above the usual radioactive weapon debris. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

SCHEDULED TARGET— A planned target on which a nuclear weapon is to be delivered at a specified time during an operation of the supported force. The time is specified in minutes before or after a designated time or in terms of the accomplishment of a predetermined movement or task. (DoD, IADB)

SECOND STRIKE— The first counterblow of a war (generally associated with nuclear operations). (DoD, IADB)

SECOND STRIKE CAPABILITY-- The ability of a nation to inflict unacceptable damage on an enemy who struck first. (NATO, CENTO, IADB)

SENSOR HARVEST— SENSOR HARVEST is a command and control warfare target analysis support (CTAS) tool produced by the Air Force Information Warfare Center. This product is designed to support the joint forces air component commander (JFACC) with a C2W intelligence tool that considers operations security (OPSEC), deception, psychological operations (PSYOP), electronic warfare (EW) and physical destruction while it is being constructed. The end result is a list of recommended C2W target nominations.

SHOCK FRONT— The boundary between the pressure disturbance created by an explosion (in air, water, or earth) and the ambient atmosphere, water, or earth. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

SHOCK WAVE— The continuously propagated pressure pulse formed by the blast from an explosion; in air by the air blast, underwater by the water blast, and underground by the earth blast. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

SINGLE SHOT PROBABILITY OF DAMAGE— The statistical likelihood of achieving a stated damage criterion against a target with a single weapon. (TIN)

SINGLE WEAPON EFFECTIVE LENGTH— A computational factor equal to twice the sum of the deflection weapon radius and the ballistic deflection error. (TIN)

SKIP BOMBING— A method of aerial bombing in which the bomb is released from such a low altitude that it slides or glances along on the surface of the water or ground and strikes the target at or above the water or ground level. (DoD, IADB)

SPAN OF DETONATION (ATOMIC DEMOLITION MUNITION EM— PLOYMENT) -- That total period of time resulting from a timer error between the earliest and latest possible detonation time. (DoD)

STICK— A succession of bombs released separately at predetermined intervals from an aircraft. STICK PATTERN LENGTH— An expression in feet of the distance between the first and last bomb impacts in a stick or the distance between the center of the first and last impacts of the cluster patterns for the stick delivery of dispenser weapons. (TIN) 125

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STICK WIDTH— An expression in feet of the width of the impact pattern of a stick of weapons. It includes the contributions due to the location of weapons on the aircraft and the rack ejection velocities. (TIN)

SURFACE BURST (NUCLEAR)— An explosion of a nuclear weapon at the surface of land or water; or above the surface, at a height less than the maximum radius of the fireball. (DoD, NATO. CENTO, IADB)

TACTICAL NUCLEAR WEAPON EMPLOYMENT— The use of nuclear weapons by land, sea, or air forces against opposing forces, supporting installations or facilities in support of operations which contribute to the accomplishment of a military mission of a limited scope or in support of the military commander's scheme of maneuver, usually limited to the area of military operations. (DoD, IADB)

TACTICAL TARGET MATERIALS (TTM)— Materials which provide a graphic representation of individual or multiple facilities, installations, or targets with specific identification, geographic location, and textual description of location and physical characteristics. (DoD)

TACTICAL TARGET MATERIALS PROGRAM (TTMP)— A DoD program established for the production of tactical target materials and related items in support of unified and specified command and allied participant TTM requirements. (DoD)

a. A geographical area, complex, or installation planned for capture or destruction by military forces.

b. In intelligence usage, a country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed.

c. An area designated and numbered for future firing.

d. In gunfire support usage, an impact burst which hits the target.

e. A thing or place to be aimed at or hit. (DoD, NATO, IADB)

TARGET ACQUISITION— The detection identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of weapons. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

TARGET ANALYSIS— An examination of potential targets to determine military importance, priority of attack, and weapons required to obtain a desired level of damage or casualties. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

TARGET ARRAY— A graphic representation of enemy forces, personnel, and facilities in a specific situation. (DoD, IADB)

TARGET CATEGORY— A group of targets all of which serve the same function or can produce the same product.

TARGET COMPLEX— A geographically integrated series of target concentrations. (DoD NATO, CENTO, IADB)

TARGET CONCENTRATION— A grouping of geographically proximate targets. (DoD, NATO, IADB)

TARGET DATA INVENTORY— A basic targeting data base which provides standardized target data in support of the requirements of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, military departments, and unified and specified 126

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commands for target planning, coordination and weapons application. (DoD, IADB) TARGET DENSITY— The number of elements per unit of area; target compactness; proximity to other targets.

TARGET DISCRIMINATION:— a. The ability of a surveillance or guidance system to identify or engage one target while multiple targets are present.

b. That quality of a guidance system which enables it to distinguish a target from its background or between two or more targets in close proximity. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

TARGET DOSSIERS— Files of assembled target intelligence about a specific geographic area. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

TARGET ELEMENT— The basic unit of a target. Some targets consist of one element; for example, a single locomotive or bunker. Others consist of similar multiple elements; for example, a POL tank farm.

TARGET FOLDERS— The folders containing target intelligence and related materials prepared for planning and executing action against a specific target. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

TARGET GRID— Device for converting the observer's target locations and corrections with respect to the observer target line to target location, and corrections with respect to the gun target line. (NATO, CENTO, IADB)

TARGET ILLUSTRATION PRINT— A single contact print or enlarged portion of a selected area from a single print, providing the best available illustration of a specific installation or point target. (NATO, CENTO, IADB)

TARGET INFORMATION SHEET— Brief description of the target, including technical and physical characteristics details on exact locations, disposition, importance and possible obstacles for an aircraft flying at low altitudes.

TARGETING— The process through which objectives are selected for attack and desired effects are determined based upon a stated mission, force posture and capabilities, aerospace doctrine, plans, concepts of operations, and target intelligence.

TARGET INTELLIGENCE— Intelligence which portrays and locates the components of a target or target complex and indicates its vulnerability and relative importance. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

TARGET ISLAND— A geographical grouping of targets. TARGET LIST— A listing of targets maintained and promulgated by the senior echelon of command. It contains those targets which are to be engaged by supporting arms, as distinguished from a "list of targets" which may be maintained by any echelon of command as confirmed, suspect, or possible targets for informational and planning purposes. (DoD, IADB)

TARGET MATERIALS— Graphic, textual, tabular, or other presentations of target intelligence primarily designed to support operations against designated targets by one or more weapons systems. Target materials are suitable for training, planning, executing, or evaluating such operations. (DoD, IADB)

TARGET PERISHABILITY— The possibility or probability that a target will change significantly during a specific period of time. A significant change is one where the target no longer exists (has moved 127

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or been dismantled) or the target has changed to the extent that it is no longer lucrative for strike. TARGET PRIORITY— Sequential ranking of targets based on given criteria. TARGET RESPONSE (NUCLEAR)— The effect on men, materiel, and equipment resulting from the explosion of a nuclear weapon. (DoD, NATO, CENT, IADB)

TARGET SELECTION CRITERIA— General or specific criteria used in the selection of target systems or specific targets. The criteria include concepts such as importance, cushion, depth, reserves, recuperation, vulnerability, dispersion, location, identification, and perishability.

TARGET SYSTEM—: a. All the targets situated in a particular geographic area and functionally related. b. A group of targets which are so related that their destruction will produce some particular effect desired by the attacker. (DoD, NATO, CENTO IADB)

TARGET SYSTEM COMPONENTS— A set of targets belonging to one or more groups of industries and basic utilities required to produce component parts of an end product, or one type of a series of interrelated commodities. (DoD, IADB)

TARGET VALUE SYSTEM— A system used by the JSTPS to determine the relative importance of enemy installations in accordance with national guidance.

THERMAL RADIATION—: a. The heat and light produced by a nuclear explosion. b. Electromagnetic radiation's emitted from a heat or light source as a consequence of its tempera-ture. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

THERMONUCLEAR WEAPON— A weapon in which high temperatures are used to bring about the fusion of light nuclei such as those of hydrogen isotopes (for example, deuterium and tritium) with the accompanying release of energy. The high temperatures required are obtained by means of fission. (DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB)

TIME CONTROLLED TARGET— A target for which timing must be controlled. TIME ON TARGET (TOT):— a. Time at which aircraft are scheduled to attack or photograph a target. b. The time at which a nuclear detonation is planned at a specified desired ground zero. (NATO, CENTO)

TIMER REFERENCE POINT (TRP)— A visually or radar significant ground fix point at which the timing sequence of the Low Angle Drogue Delivery (LADD) is initiated.

TIME URGENT TARGET— A target which may not be time dependent initially but becomes so once the decision has been made to execute an attack against it.

TOSS BOMBING— A method of bombing where the aircraft flies on a line toward the target, pulls up in a vertical plane, releasing the bomb at an angle that will compensate for the effect of gravity on the bomb. (DoD, IADB)

TRAIN BOMBING— A method of bombing in which two or more bombs are released at predetermined intervals from one aircraft as a result of a single activation of the bomb release mechanism in the aircraft. 128

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(DoD, NATO, CENTO, IADB) UNDERGROUND BURST (NUCLEAR)— The explosion of a nuclear weapon in which the center of the detonation lies at a point beneath the surface of the ground.

UNDERWATER BURST (NUCLEAR)— The explosion of a nuclear weapon in which the center of the detonation lies at a point beneath the surface of the water.

VULNERABILITY— Susceptibility of a target to destruction by available weapons. (DoD, IADB) VULNERABLE AREA— An expression of the area of a target is vulnerable to the damage mechanism of a given weapon. (DoD, NESN, NFSN, IADB)

WEAPON ALLOCATION— The PREPLANNED distribution of the committed weapons over the target system to achieve the mission objectives.

WEAPON DELIVERY— The total action required to locate the target, establish the necessary release conditions, and maintain guidance to the target if required. It includes the detection, recognition, and acquisition of the target, the weapon release, and weapon guidance.

WEAPON EFFECTIVENESS— The statistical estimate of the expected results if a specific munitions employment, considering target vulnerability, munitions effects, target environment, damage criteria, delivery accuracy, external ballistics, and weapon reliability.

WEAPON RELIABILITY— The dependability of the warhead functioning properly. WEAPON SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS— A statistical estimate of the expected results of a specific munitions employment considering weapon effectiveness and the probability of weapon system arrival.

WITHHOLD (NUCLEAR)— The limiting of authority to employ nuclear weapons by denying their use within specified geographical areas. (DoD, IADB)

ZERO POINT— The location of the center of a burst of a nuclear weapon at the instant of detonation. The zero point may be in the air, on or beneath the surface of the earth or water, dependent upon the type of burst, and it is thus distinguished from ground zero. (DoD, IADB)

ZONE I (NUCLEAR)— A circular area, determined by using minimum safe distance as the radius and the desired ground zero as the center from which all armed forces are evacuated. If evacuation is not possible or if a commander elects a higher degree of risk, maximum protective measures will be required. (DoD, IADB)

ZONE II (NUCLEAR)— A circular area (less Zone I) determined by using minimum safe distance as the radius and the desired ground zero as the center, in which all personnel require maximum protection. Maximum protection denotes that armed forces personnel are in "buttoned up" tanks or crouched in foxholes with improvised shielding. (DoD, IADB)

ZONE III (NUCLEAR)— A circular area (less Zones I and II) determined by using minimum safe distance as the radius and desired ground zero as the center in which all personnel require minimum protection. Minimum protection denotes that armed forces personnel are prone on open ground with all skin areas covered and with an overall thermal protection at least equal to that provided by a two- layer uniform. (DoD, IADB)