|USAF INTELLIGENCE TARGETING GUIDE
AIR FORCE PAMPHLET 14- 210 Intelligence
1 FEBRUARY 1998
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1.1.1. Air Force targeteers are experienced intelligence personnel trained in the specifics of targeting and knowledgeable about operations. Targeting professionals do not produce intelligence, but instead apply intelligence. In the same vein, they do not direct operations, but provide expertise to the staff to nominate and suggest targeting options for planning and implementation.
1. 1. 2. This pamphlet is based on concepts in the application of airpower, from an intelligence and operational point of view. In many cases there is no one "best" way to perform targeting. Often the particular process used to arrive at a solution is not as important as the solution itself. Targeting includes more than operations and intelligence-- it includes the whole spectrum of military techniques that are used to make the enemy perform our will. It is not a newly discovered concept, but a synthesis of thinking and airpower application over the decades. Attachment2includes a summary of that his-tory..
Section 1B— Preface 1.2. Preface. This pamphlet is intended to be an aid to targeteers from the combat unit to the force man-agement level. It is designed to be the primary source of basic information on Air Force targeting. It describes the principles and some of the techniques of targeting. It is, however, intended to be the USAF's "how- to" manual for targeting.
1.2.1. This pamphlet presents three types of information: basic concepts and definitions, fundamen-tal procedures and techniques, and reference information. Use of this pamphlet may not be in thor-ough cover- to- cover reading, but in a review, dependent on your experience. The first two chapters are an introduction to targeting and intelligence in general. The first chapter is "must reading" for everyone. The second chapter could be used by experienced intelligence personnel as a refresher. The pamphlet then progresses to more complicated concepts and techniques. Major topics addressed include the targeting process; combat unit level functions; target value analysis and assignment of pri-orities; analysis, both quantitative and qualitative; target materials and target location; special target-ing problems, such as information warfare; and international law as applied to targeting. 6
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Section 1C— Fundamentals of Targeting 1.3. Overview . This chapter outlines some fundamentals of targeting and the target intelligence process. It also examines the strike or attack mission cycle, with emphasis on targeting activities. It examines tar-gets as independent entities and as components of target systems. It discusses target system characteris-tics and describes the scope and position of the targeting function at the crossroads of intelligence and operations (figure 1.1).
1.4. Targeting . Targeting recommends the best means to attain a goal. It integrates intelligence infor-mation about the threat, the target system, and target characteristics with operations data on friendly force posture, capabilities, weapons effects, objectives, rules of engagement, and doctrine. Targeting matches objectives and guidance with inputs from intelligence and operations to identify the forces necessary to achieve the objectives. It spans not only nuclear, conventional, chemical, and non lethal force applica-tion, but can also include information warfare, space, and special operations in joint and combined opera-tions. From this integration, targeting makes recommendations for the use of aerospace forces. Joint Pub (JP) 1- 02, DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, defines targeting as "( 1) The process of selecting targets and matching the appropriate response to them, taking account of operational require-ments and capabilities; (2) The analysis of enemy situations relative to the commander's mission, objec-tives, and capabilities at the commander's disposal, to identify and nominate specific vulnerabilities that, if exploited, will accomplish the commander's purpose through delaying, disrupting, disabling, or destroying enemy forces or resources critical to the enemy." The exploitation of information, although not mentioned in the joint definition, is also of great importance.
1.5. The Targeting Process. The Air Force targeting function cuts across traditional functional and organizational boundaries. Operations and intelligence are the primary active participants, but other functional areas such as logistics and communications also support the targeting process. Close coordina-tion, cooperation, and communication among the participants are essential for the best use of resources. 7
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1.5.3. Targeting Process Phases. 184.108.40.206. Objectives and Guidance Derivation . Objectives and guidance are the foundation of the targeting process. In this phase, the objectives and guidance are developed and disseminated to the targeteer. Objectives are developed at the national, theater, and component levels. Guid-ance is generally provided at the National and war fighting CINC- level. Both objectives and guid-ance must be quantifiable and unambiguous in order to be effective.
220.127.116.11. Target Development. This is the examination of potential target systems and their com-ponents to determine change to system criticality and vulnerability to attack. This phase distills the commander's objectives into lists of targets. The product of this phase is a suggested target list with recommended priorities assigned and extent of desired damage.
18.104.22.168. Weaponeering Assessment. In this part of the process, planners assess the types and quantity of weapons estimated to achieve a desired level of damage to the individual targets. The product of this phase is a list of recommended weapons and aircraft for each target and a validated list of weapon impact points for each target. Weaponeering takes into account target vulnerabili- 9
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22.214.171.124. Execution Planning. Execution planning prepares input for and supports the actual task-ing, construction, and subsequent execution by weapon systems. Input includes data concerning the target, weaponeering calculations, employment parameters, and tactics. The operational com-mand is responsible for monitoring the ATO/ ITO, making any changes necessary and providing support to the units. Under Air Force doctrine of centralized control, decentralized execution, unit commanders are given the freedom and flexibility to execute the plan, as they see fit.
126.96.36.199. Combat Assessment. After mission execution, the quality of the whole process is assessed. Improvements in force employment, munitions design and situation assessments emerge from this appraisal of post- strike data. The results of this effort affect future combat oper-ations and can change theater objectives. The product of this phase is tailored to the decision mak-ers.
1.6. Strike or Attack Mission Cycle Functions and Targeting. 1.6.1. Targeting plays a key role in the commander's decision to employ attack forces; this decision making process in the operations community is frequently referred to as the attack mission cycle or the strike/ attack cycle. JP 1- 02 defines mission cycle "as it pertains to targeting, is a decision making process used by commanders to employ forces." This cycle is similar to the targeting process and is sometimes confused with the targeting or ATO cycle.
1.6.2. Within the attack mission cycle, there are six general steps: detection, location, identification, decision, execution, and assessment (figure 1.3). For the initial attack, the outer cycle (detection, location, identification, decision, and execution) is used. After the initial attack, both cycles run at the same time and interact through analysis at the decision step. 10
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1.6.4. While the point of understanding the cycle is not to see how fast the functions can be per-formed, the functions must be performed quickly enough to use the information developed, that is, the intelligence developed during the attack cycle must arrive in time to influence the decision and execu-tion, either in a positive or negative sense. This concept, "fast enough for the intended purpose, "is termed "in time" in this handbook. 11
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1.7. The Target. The term target has several meanings and is used in various contexts. Joint Publication (JP)
1- 02 defines a target as: "a geographic area, complex, or installation planned for capture or destruction by military forces." The intelligence community definition is "a country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed." For targeting purposes, this definition must be expanded to include the contents of the area, complex, or installation (e. g., people, equipment, and, resources). Furthermore, capture or destruction must be expanded to include disruption, degradation, neutralization, and exploitation, commensurate with objectives and guidance.
1.7.1. Relationship to the Objective. A target must qualify as a military objective before it can become a legitimate object of military attack. In this context, military objectives include those objects that by their nature, location, purpose, or use make an effective contribution to military action, or whose total or partial destruction, capture, or neutralization offers a definite military advantage. The key factor is whether the object contributes to the enemy's war fighting or war sustaining capability. Consequently, an identifiable military benefit or advantage should derive from the degradation, neu-tralization, destruction, capture, or disruption of the object. Not only does this concept preclude vio-lations of the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC), but it also supports the principles of war by employing economy of force against valid military objectives.
1.7.2. Target Types. Targets may be classified in many fashions, but usually are grouped by the broad mission assigned or their target system. Generally, missions follow doctrine in areas such as Interdiction, Counterair, Strategic Attack, or Maritime Control. Some targets can impact two or more areas. Targets can affect the spectrum of military operations and, in any set of scenarios, the same tar-get could be tactical, operational, or strategic. Whether a target is classified as operational or strategic is not always as important as the results attained. The difficulty of classification flows from the defi-nitions of the terms and relevance of the target to the war fighting effort. According to AFDD 1- 1, the strategic level of war incorporates the broadest concerns of national policy. Operational level focuses on campaigns and major operations that guide tactical events. Tactical level focuses on battles and engagements. Geographical areas, operating environments, delivery vehicles, and munitions DO NOT dictate the classification of a target as strategic, operational, or tactical.
1.7.3. Fixed Target Identification Data. Because of the great amount of intelligence available, large numbers of potential targets, and a variety of data bases, it is essential to have a standard refer-ence system. Fixed targets are listed, described, and indexed through five basic elements of informa-tion, they are: the basic encyclopedia (BE) number, the functional classification code, the target name, the geographic coordinate, and a two- character geopolitical (or country) code. (Refer to the Target Intelligence Handbook [TIHB] [DDB- 2600- 312- YR]).
188.8.131.52. Basic Encyclopedia (BE) Numbers (BEN). The ten- character BE number has two parts: the World Aeronautical Chart (WAC) number, which consists of four characters; and the installation number, which consists of either six numeric characters, one alpha and five numeric characters, or two alpha and four numeric characters. A BE number may be used as follows: 12
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184.108.40.206.2. Non- DIA Produced BE Numbers. An installation discovered by non- DIA ele-ments and reported for inclusion in the Modernized Integrated Data Base (MIDB) is identified by a BE number that carries alpha characters in the fifth and sixth character positions. These characters represent the exploitation element that assigned the number and controls it.
220.127.116.11.3. Electronic BE Numbers. The BE numbers for a non- communication electronic installation consists of the WAC number, with an "E" in the fifth character position, and a five- digit EOB site number.
18.104.22.168.4. Fictitious BE Numbers. The BE number for a fictitious (projected) installation has an "F" in the fifth character position. This is useful for exercise databases or for unclassified exercise scenarios.
22.214.171.124. Functional Classification Codes. Each installation is classified or categorized to reflect products and military activity supported, etc. They are categorized by a five- digit code, as fol-lows:
1. 126.96.36.199. The first digit gives the function in nine major categories. The other four digits show functions within the group. From left to right, each one describes the function or capa-bility of the installation more specifically. A code is assigned to each fixed facility that has some significance. The functional code for a mobile system (e. g., SAM, AAA, GCI, etc.) is assigned to the specific area that the system supports or where the activity is located (rather than the equipment itself). See DIAM 65- 3- 1 for these functional classification codes, com-monly known as category codes.
EXAMPLE: 80052 Airfield, fighter base, primary mission is support of ground attack aircraft. 188.8.131.52. Installation Names. Because of the many types of installations, coupled with the various name forms and component parts, a specific procedure is used to select and apply installation names. There are seven name components used to identify installations. These components appear in the following order: place name, functional name, distinguishing descriptive terms, proper name, honorary name, underground designation, and installation alpha or numerical desig-nators. However, not all of these names may appear on one installation. (For standard abbrevia-tions and procedures used, see the Target Intelligence Handbook.) CIA and some other sources of installation name do not always use the standard DoD naming scheme; be careful in trying to cor-relate installations based only on the name. The same applies to place names
184.108.40.206. Installation Coordinates. Latitude and longitude coordinates represent the fourth stan-dard element for installation identification. They are reference coordinates only and they are selected by approximating the center of mass for an installation. For airfields, the center of the runway or intersection of major runways is selected. Fields in the MIDB will indicate the source of coordinates (See DDB- 2600- 725- XX, Point Reference Guide Book).
EXAMPLE: 265134N0932402E 220.127.116.11. Geopolitical codes. Geopolitical or country codes are composed of two alpha characters listed in the Target Intelligence Handbook. These codes are used in every installation record as one of the basic identification elements. 13
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1.7.4. Target Characteristics. Every target has distinct inherent, acquired, functional, physical, environmental and mobility characteristics (Table1.1.).The target characteristics form the basis for target detection, location, identification, and classificationfor future surveillance, analysis, and strike.
18.104.22.168. Inherent Characteristics. Inherent characteristics are the initial, original, designed, or essential characteristics of an object or area. Generally, these are immediately obvious features and are used to detect, identify, and categorize an object or area. Inherent target characteristics include, for example, the expansive and relatively level area that is free from surrounding vertical obstructions at airfields; barracks, tents, administration buildings, service buildings, and perimeter fences at military installations; and the spans, piers, abutments, and superstructures of bridges. Generally, these characteristics consist of those gross and usually obvious features that are used (either consciously or unconsciously) in detecting, identifying, and categorizing an object or area.
22.214.171.124. Acquired Characteristics . Characteristics that modify, enhance, or augment the inher-ent characteristics of an object or area are acquired characteristics. Examples include: replacing a sod runway with a concrete runway; building a surface- to- air missile (SAM) site within the perim-eter of a previously undefended troop concentration area; and widening the deck of a one- lane highway bridge to two lanes. Acquired characteristics can change a target's function without nec-essarily modifying its observable characteristics. For example, a fertilizer plant might be con-verted to an explosives production facility without changing the outside appearance of the plant. Because the characteristics of all objects and areas are changeable, each target must be routinely monitored to ensure that any status related changes are brought to the attention of target analysts.
126.96.36.199. Functional Characteristics . These characteristics describe operations and activity lev-els of an actual or potential target and are extremely important in determining target value. Func-tional characteristics are often hard to determine because of difficulties in directly observing or investigating the target. In these cases, analysts must use other data collection activities to supply the necessary information. Reaching a plausible conclusion can involve considerable speculation and deductive or inductive reasoning. Functional characteristics include target function, status, level of activity, functional complexity, importance, reconstitution potential, and position. Func-tional characteristics contain the following:
Operational (producing or capable of action, i. e., is manned, has equipment, and is mission ready, even if damaged to some extent)
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188.8.131.52.1. Level of activity is an important functional characteristic when considered in rela-tion to the entire scenario and when compared to other similar targets. Functional complexity is the number of separate activities that make up a target and the complexity of each. Impor-tance is the value or significance of a target in either a material or psychological sense as it relates to other similar targets, to the organizational hierarchy, and to the current scenario. Reconstitution potential is a target's capability to recover from damage to perform its original function. Position is a target's relational location within the military or governmental organi-zational structure.
184.108.40.206. Physical Characteristics . Physical characteristics are the visually discernible features or the target's sensor derived signatures (detected, identified, and categorized displays registered in one or more portions of the electromagnetic spectrum). The target shape, size, composition, reflectivity and radiation propagation, determine to a large extent, the type and number of weap-ons, weapon systems, or sensors needed to accomplish the attack or intelligence objective. Phys-ical characteristics of the target are described using words, abbreviations, acronyms, or numbers (for example, shape, dimensions, type of construction, etc.). They include the following:
striking systems, delivery accuracy, and munitions effects)
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visible, infrared, and ultra- violet radiation; and radar and radio transmissions)
220.127.116.11. Mobility Characteristics . Mobility characteristics are a target's ability to move or be moved. A target's mobility is closely related to its functional and physical characteristics and is influenced by prevailing doctrines or strategies governing its use. Mobility characteristics include whether a target is moving or nonmoving. A nonmoving target is one that is either temporarily or permanently stationary. These can be classified further as being:
18.104.22.168. Environmental Characteristics . These are relatively constant or manmade conditions and circumstances within which the target exists. These characteristics affect decisions concern-ing reconnaissance and weapon system selection and employment. They include:
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NOTE: The characteristics of all objects and areas are changeable. Each target must be monitored routinely to ensure any status related change is brought to the attention of target analysts.
Table 1.1. Target Characteristics. Functional Characteristics Environmental Characteristics
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1.8.1. Target System Characteristics. All target systems have certain general characteristics:
1.8.2. Target System Components . JP 1- 02 defines "target system components" as "a set of targets belonging to one or more groups of industries and basic utilities required to produce component parts of an end product." This definition covers the basic concept of the relationship between a target sys-tem and its component parts. It does not, however, define the whole series of target components. A target system is divided into components, each of which may be a target. A system component is an entity supporting a functional process to produce an end product or service. For example, an air defense system may include command and control, early warning and target acquisition radars, anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) and surface- to- air missile (SAM) batteries, SAM support facilities, and other components that are neither industries nor utilities.
1.8.3. Target System Activity . The targeting process should not focus on the system or its compo-nents, per se, but on the activity of the system or its components. By determining which activity is to be modified or affected by friendly forces, key target systems and target system components can be identified and nominated for strike. On a lesser scale, this same analysis can be performed for individ-ual targets. Key and vulnerable elements of each target can be identified for attack. A comprehensive analysis of the system and its component parts is essential to understand the activities of the entire sys-tem.
1.8.4. Target System Elements . Target system elements are smaller, more intricate parts of the tar-get system than component and are necessary to the operation of the component as a whole. 19
|USAF INTELLIGENCE TARGETING GUIDE
AIR FORCE PAMPHLET 14- 210 Intelligence
1 FEBRUARY 1998