The Joint Intelligence Architecture

"In establishing a JIC at each combatant command, we have improved the quality of intelligence support to the warfighter while decreasing the resources required to produce such support."
CJCS Report on the Roles, Missions, and Functions of the Armed Forces of the United States, February 1993

1. Introduction

This chapter describes the joint intelligence architecture that provides a multimedia communications network with interoperable systems that link the theater JICs, joint task force (JTF) JISEs, deployed intelligence elements, Service intelligence, and national intelligence organizations in a global grid.

2. C4I For The Warrior

The Department of Defense strategy for C4I is laid out in the Joint Staff/ J-6 developed C4I for the Warrior concept. This concept envisions a global communications and information grid into which all military information customers can plug interoperable systems. The joint intelligence architecture is an integral part of the C4I for the Warrior concept.

3. Joint Intelligence Architecture

a. Overview

b. Principles. The Services and DOD agencies responsible for organizing, training, and fielding intelligence systems and personnel must provide the Secretary of Defense, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, combatant commanders, and subordinate commanders as much flexibility as possible in assembling their intelligence support architectures. JFCs should be able to assemble an optimum mix of intelligence capabilities (personnel, procedures, and C4I), regardless of the source, and still receive adequate intelligence support. Intelligence systems, concepts, products, and language must be sufficiently interoperable for the exchange and use of data in any form and from any source among intelligence organizations and operating commands and forces. Interoperability principles are shown in Figure VII-1.

Figure VII-1. Intelligence Architecture Principles

c. Requirements

"Military intelligence is not, in fact, the spectacular service of the common imagining, but a much more prosaic affair, dependent on an efficient machinery for collecting and evaluating every sort of item of information--machinery that extends from the front-line right back to Supreme Headquarters. When the mass of information has been collected, the art is to sift the wheat from the chaff, and then to lay before the commander a short clear statement."
Field Marshal Earl Alexander,
"The Alexander Memoirs,"

Figure VII-3. Joint Intelligence Architecture

4. Connectivity

a. General. To maximize the utility of the architecture, systems must meet standards of connectivity using standard communications protocols and standard encryption devices that must be available at all echelons. The architecture has the flexibility to accommodate, not to replace, existing I&W and direct support systems. It is intended to overlay additional capabilities using existing communications carriers.

b. Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System and Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System. The joint intelligence architecture uses JWICS and JDISS as the joint standard and foundation for commonality among support systems. As shown in Figure VII-4, JWICS satisfies the requirement fo secure, high-speed, multimedia transmission services for intelligence information. JWICS incorporates advanced networking technologies that permit greater throughput and capacity, making possible the use of applications that take advantage of multimedia technologies including video teleconferencing. Each JWICS node can create, receive, transmit, and store video images as well as voice, text, graphics, and data. Information can be either broadcast or shared interactively among JWICS subscribers on a point-to-point or multipoint basis. The JWICS circuit can be managed via allocation of bandwidth, allowing simultaneous use of the link for multiple applications. JWICS is an integral part of the sensitive compartmented information portion of the Defense Information Systems Network.

Figure VII-4. Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communication System

Figure VII-5. The Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System

5. The Joint Intelligence Center/Joint Intelligence Support Elements

Secretary of Defense memorandum, 15 March 1991, "Strengthening Defense Intelligence," inter alia, established the JIC as the primary intelligence organization providing support to joint warfighting at all levels. The JIC concept fuses the main support capabilities of all Service, Combat Support Agency, and combat units into a one stop shopping center for intelligence support. Although in reality, a particular JIC cannot be expected to completely satisfy every RFI; it can coordinate support from other intelligence organizations above and below its echelon. A subordinate joint force is supported by a JISE, a tailored subset of a theater JIC.

Figure VII-6. Representative Joint Intelligence Center

Figure VII-7 JIC/JISE Personnel Augmentation Sources.

a. All JICs/JISEs provide intelligence support to operational forces and perform common functions. Figure VII-6 provides a representative JIC organization wherein all major joint intelligence functional areas and liaison relationships are presented. As shown, the JIC is the principal J-2 organization supporting joint operations.

b. The JIC/JISE is, by deign, scalable and can expand to meet the needs of the JFC. During noncrisis periods, JIC manning is normally retained at the minimum level required to perform essential functions such as I&W, current intelligence, collection management, delegated general military intelligence production, and support to the commander. As crises develop, JICs at each echelon bring together personnel and equipment needed to manage intelligence support requirements. JISEs are established to meet the particular needs of subordinate joint forces. Collection, production, and dissemination resources are focused on the crisis. Liaison with intelligence production agencies and communications staffs identifies critical shortfalls, and action to correct deficiencies is accomplished. Because the JIC is the focal point for intelligence support to joint operations, augmentation personnel are drawn from many sources, including Reserves, as shown in Figure VII-7.

c. At the national level, the NMJIC is the focal point for all defense intelligence activities in support of joint operations. Combatant commands have JICs focused on their geographic or functional responsibilities. A subordinate joint force, when established, also normally forms a JISE as the focus for intelligence in support of the joint force commander, joint staff, and components.

d. Functions. The JIC/JISE allows for efficient access to the entire DOD intelligence infrastructure in support of joint operations. JICs/JISEs perform common functions although the degree to which they engage in specific functions varies according to command missions. The command's J-2 and JIC/JISE are normally collocated, and it is the prerogative of command to define JIC functions and responsibilities, particularly with respect to the J-2 staff. In many cases, a responsibility may be shared between the J-2 staff and JIC/JISE. For example, the J-2 staff may be responsible for setting forth collection requirements, while the JIC may have the duties of implementing those requirements and managing their fulfillment.

07-16-1996; 14:52:12