Tactical Imagery Intelligence Operations TJIDBT

FEB 96




Tie-in: This is your first contact with imagery collection systems in this course. Tactical imagery collection systems are going through massive changes from the way things where just a few years ago. How these new systems are employed is dependent on the mission. To fully use the information these assets provide, you need to understand their capabilities and just as important their limitaions.


The overall classification for this block of instruction is unclassified.


Objective: Given descriptions, situations, and student notes/ references, identify Tactical Imagery Intelligence Operations and systems. This is to done IAW the graduation criteria which includes the

capabilities and limitations, reports and equipment.

Safety Considerations: No safety considerations.


IMINT is the only discipline that allows the commander to "See the Battlefield" in real time as the operation progresses. In order for you to support your tactical commander and allow him to better see the battlefield, it is important that you have an understanding of the assets that are available to support the tactical mission.

Procedure: We will discuss the history of imagery intelligence, the categories, platforms, sensors and capabilities and limitations of each. During our short practical exercise you will assume to duties of a collection manager. The practical exercise is designed to further enhance your knowledge of TAC IMINT and enhance your ability to apply the correct platform and sensor to meet specific intelligence requirements.



Lets briefly discuss the History of Aerial Reconnaissance. Early attempts to capture scenes of the earth's surface consisted of observers and artists going aloft in hot air balloons. However, the true birth of IMINT came with the invention of the camera. The Union Army used hot air balloons for observation and photography during the American Civil War. The Germans experimented with both kites and rockets as platforms in the late 1800s. Their early efforts met with little success.

SLIDE #6 W.W. I. W.W. II etc.

During the First World War, cameras were used on aircraft, but usually only for front line tactical applications. Rapid advances were made in both cameras and aircraft between the wars. In W.W.II 80% of the intelligence gained was derived from aerial photography. During W.W. II photography was used mainly against strategic targets such as industrial complexes, LOCs and population centers. Having provided its worth in two World Wars, aerial photography has been used extensively in every major conflict since. During Korea it was used to identify strategic targets which were then engaged in an effort to halt the Chinese invasion of the south. In Vietnam it was used in a similar role in the north to support USAF bombing missions. In the south, it was used in a tactical role trying to locate a somewhat elusive enemy. During DESERT SHIELD and STORM imagery played an important role both at the tactical and strategic levels. The OV-1D deployed to King Kalad Military City (KKMC) and monitored the FLOT with its moving target indicator capability. It has since been taken out of the inventory and will be replaced by JSTARS and UAVs. The Pioneer UAV was also used during DESERT STORM with great success. The JSTARS aircraft and equipment was deployed to Ryhad and also proved itself as a valuable tool for the tactical commander. We'll discuss these systems in greater detail later in the class.

SLIDE #7 R & S

Aerial sensors are employed to conduct both reconnaissance and surveillance missions. Its important you remember that reconnaissance is performed over specific targets at specific times, while surveillance is performed over typically larger areas over long periods of time.


When performing R&S missions TAC IMINT is divided into five categories. They are Visual, Photography, Infrared, Radar, and Electro-Optical (EO).


With visual observations the pilot can maneuver the aircraft so that he obtains the vantage point.

The ability to maneuver also allows the pilot to cover large areas

and conduct rapid observation in a short period .

Using secure Comms the pilot can relay this information immediately making this a very timely capability.

Often the report from an "eyewitness" carries more credibility then a text report and is accepted with a greater degree of confidence .


Enemy defenses speaks for itself. If the pilot can see the enemy, they can see him.

Visibility is of course affected by weather.

Terrain such as mountains and vegetation will limit the pilots ability to see the enemy.

Darkness would obviously severely limit vision.

With visual observations there is no permanent record that can be refered to a later date.


Our next category is Aerial photography. Aerial photography is that imagery which is obtained with a conventional camera system .


Photography has a number of advantages or capabilities. Some of these are:

Photography can collect acrossed the FLOT into otherwise inaccessible areas.

Photography can provide high resolution images to identify objects in more detail.

With simple algebraic formulas imagery can be used to measure objects on the ground. This technique would be beneficial in estimating the storage capacity of logistic sites.

Film provides a permanent record which can be used later to detect change in the target area.



Some of the disadvantages of using photography are:

Photography doesn't provide all the answers. Photo missions prove most successful when cross-cued from other intelligence disciplines.

Many of the same limitation that apply to visual observations also apply to photograph.

Enemy defenses.


Darkness. Although Flash Gun systems have been developed for aerial photography using them over enemy held terrain has never been generally accepted as safe practice .

Terrain can significantly mask the target. Careful mission planning is required to reduce this limitation.

Timeliness is perhaps the greatest limitation of photography. The film must be returned to a processing site and developed before analysis is possible. Information on the imagery may have perished by the time the analyst sees it.


If a photographic mission would best answer your intelligence requirement you may want to specify the sensor format to use. These different formats allow us to see the earth's surface from different views. These camera positions are Vertical , Oblique, and Panoramic. Each position has its advantages and disadvantages and you need to understand them in some detail.


Vertical photography is useful for map updates or map substitutes. This capability is very important in areas where up to date maps aren't available.

Vertical photography can also be used to make photo mosaics. A photo mosaic is produced when several photos are joined together to cover a large target area.


Some of the limitations of vertical photography are:

The aircraft must directly overfly the target and therefore it's

susceptible to enemy air defense measures.

Concealment, camouflage and deception (CC&D) measures by the enemy are hardest to detect on vertical imagery, particularly equipment in dense foliage or equipment under bridges. Camouflage netting is also very difficult to detect on vertical photography.

The target area that can be imaged is limited to the altitude of the airframe. To increase the area of coverage with vertical imagery you must increase the altitude of the aircraft. In doing so, you decrease the resolution of the image. This trade off is a critical consideration in mission planning.


The next format is Oblique. Oblique shots cover a much larger area as the camera looks out to the side of the aircraft. The camera position can be changed from left to right during the mission. Camera positions must be predetermine during mission planning.

Oblique camera angles allow the aircraft to "standoff" from the target area. This capability provides less risk to the aircraft and pilot but requires must more attention to detail during mission planning.

Oblique camera angles provide a natural view of the earth surface.

With this improved look angle we are able to look under the edges of bridges or into treelines. This overcomes a disadvantage of vertical photography.


When looking to the oblique terrain will offer the enemy the ability to conceal themselves. This is another critical consideration in mission planning.

At the far edge of an oblique image distortion will be most severe . The best representation of the target area is located in the center of the oblique image. In mission planning this is another aspect that must be taken into consideration.


Panoramic photos are produce either by using a "fish eye" type lens or they may be produced by the lens scanning acrossed the moving film. When plotted out on a map the area of coverage will have a bow tie outline.


Panoramic missions cover a VERY large area scanning 180 degrees from horizon to horizon.

As with oblique, PAN has a standoff capability.


Panoramic limitations are the same as those in Oblique Photography.

Those are terrain masking and distortion.


Our next category is INFRARED imaging systems.

SLIDE # 23

INFRARED sensors detect energy that is emitted or reflected from an object. IR imaging systems detect electromagnetic waves that are outside the visual spectrum. Those electromagnetic waves lie just passed visible light and just before microwaves. IR images have the same properties as visible light images an therefore closely resemble photo images.

These images are produced by recording the amount of heat released from an object on the ground. During the day objects absorb energy from the sun. After the sun has set the energy is released. Some objects release energy faster than others. Metal, as in this metal roofed building will release it's heat faster than the water in this small pond. Therefore, the body of water will show up brighter on IR imagery.


IR has a limited capability to penetrate camouflage. If a vehicle had just been camouflaged, or is warming up it's engine in preparation to move out, the heat from the engine may be detected through the camouflage.

It can be used day or night, although images at night provide

better contrast.

Its a passive system that does not emit signals and therefore cannot be jammed as radar imaging system can.

Because IR imagery is near the visual spectrum it looks much like a photo.


IR imagery is degraded by severe weather and terrain affects it the same way as conventional photo images


Our next catagory is imaging radar. To better understand how imaging radar works we'll need to discuss radar theory.


Imaging radar operates by emitting an EM pulse which illuminates or paints the target area The emitted energy then reflects off the target back to the aircraft where the signal is recorded. The amount of energy that returns and the time it takes that energy to return is calculated to produce a radar image. In this example a large hill is in the target area. The area behind the hill is not illuminated and therefore not returning energy. This would look like a shadow on the radar imagery just as sunlight would produce shadows on imagery in visual spectrum. Imaging radar works much the same way as SONAR on a submarine. The "bing" on SONAR is the returning energy. The time it takes the bing to return and its intensity determine the size and location of the target.


All radar imaging systems today are data linked to ground stations, therefore the information is near real time, The system uses its own energy to illuminate the target and this makes it day and night capable. The system is near all weather. Severe thunder storms will degrade the image.


Radar can do two very important things for us. First it provides images of fixed targets. This is useful for terrain analyst, change detection, and pattern analyst. Perhaps its greatest capability is to detect moving targets. A moving object will produce a "Doppler shift" and is displayed as a "dot" on radar imagery. With the sophistication of today's systems movers speed and direction can be determined.


Resolution (impulse response) is poorer than with other systems.

Interpretation is more difficult and requires higher levels of

training and skill.

Radar is an active system that emits signals which can be

jammed. The system is therefore susceptible to Electronic Counter Measures (ECM).


Our last category is Electro - Optical


It collects imagery in the visual range using an array of detectors that sample light at fixed points.

Its near real time data link to around sensor terminal

Perhaps the greatest capability of EO is you can manipulate it using digital techniques. The human eye can detect about 30 shades of gray. An EO system can detect 256 shades of gray. If an object was parked in the shadow of a building you could change the individual pixel value of the image to identiy targets that otherwise could not be seen by the human eye.


Lets discuss the reports produced from those five IMINT CATEGORIES.


These are the five reports that you may see at the tactical level. Each has a different purpose and you should understand each so that you can request the appropriate one. No imagery accompanies these reports unless you specifically request it.


The In-flight Report is just as the name implies, a report given by the aircrew while still in flight. It is the result of a visual observation but may be from analysis of on board sensors and displays. It very timely but only gives you information on the what, where, and when.


This report is the most common and will come to you automatically if you are on the producers message addressee list or if you have requested a specific mission. The RECCEXREP is a very simple report and includes a quick debrief of the aircrew followed by a quick read-out of the imagery to determine just that information that you have requested. The reporting unit has a specific deadline to meet. They have only 45 minutes from Engine-Shut-Down (ESD) to have the report completed and to the communications center for transmission. That 45 minutes also include film processing time which on long missions may take up the majority deadline. So you can imagine how the analyst may only have a few minutes to review the film and produce a report.


The RADAREXREP is exactly the same as the RECCEXREP except the report is derived from radar imagery as opposed to photo imagery. The deadline for a RADAREXREP is 45 minutes after ESD or 45 minutes after the datalink has been terminated.


The next report is the IPIR. This is a more detailed readout of the imagery. This report must be requested. With this report the analysts have 4 hours from Engine Shut Down (ESD) to have the report completed and delivered to the message center for transmission. This is a useful report if you want more detail but do not need to have the information on a very timely basis.


Finally, the SUPIR is a report that is usually produce at EAC. It uses the same format as the IPIR, but will contain significantly more detailed information. SUPIRs are produced systematically from a standing target deck.


The new systems that will produce those reports are the UAV, JSTARS, and the RF-4C replacement

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Discuss replacement


The JOINT SURVEILLANCE TARGET ATTACK RADAR SYSTEM or JSTARS replaces the MTI and FTI capability of the old Mohawk. It provides continuous wide area surveillance of surface activity in a moving target indicator mode and can image fixed target with is synthetic aperture radar capability. It serves the ground component commander in much the same way as the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWAKES) serves the Air Component Commander (ASS).

JSTARS is an Army and Air Force multi - service system and provides real-time surveillance, intelligence, targeting, and battlefield management information to Land Components.

SLIDE #43 E-8

The airborne portion consist of and E-8 aircraft with 17 operator stations, 3-5 being Army personnel.


The Army's old Mohawk Side Looking Airborne Radar system gave us information on MTI but could only tell us of the occurrence of movement.


As it flew back and forth along the Corps front it might be as long as half an hour before it would image the same target area.


JSTARS MTI radar sweeps the Corps area of interest ever 60 seconds giving us an update of the battlefield situation.




The capability to display moving and massing targets over an entire corps sector every 60 seconds. On board the aircraft operators view a high resolution CRT monitor. The information is displayed in a "Windows" type format. As many as three windows may be opened a time. This example show MTI data being displayed over a digitized map. The window in the top left corner shows a UAV mission as its being flown. The window in the lower left shows a file image of the same area from an earlier mission.


The Army has several variations of Ground Stations Modules (GSMs) to process JSTARS data. Each GSM has two consoles and requires six operators per GSM for 24-hour operations. Both operator screens have the same capabilities and are identical to the operator screens on the JSTARS aircraft.


The IGSM is housed in a S-679 shelter on a modified 5-ton cargo truck. It is staffed by a team of six Army personnel allowing for 24 hour operations. The IGSM system is comprised of two 5-ton cargo trucks and two 30 kw generator power units. One five-ton truck is unmodified and is used as a support vehicle to carry spare equipment. The IGSM operator can communicate with supported units via voice landline, UHF, VHF, TACFIRE, MSE, or freetext messages to the E-8 or other GSMs. The IGSM may request images of a specific area through voice communication with the E-8 or an RSR for any type of MTI coverage.


To review the important points to remember (read slide)


The MGSM is housed in a S-751 shelter and carried on a modified 5-ton cargo truck. It is also staffed by a team of six personnel for 24 hour operations. The MGSM shelter also has two operator consoles, each consisting of a high resolution screen and a militarized keyboard and trackball. Graphics can be digitized from maps and moving targets can be overlaid on to the map. The GSM can pass information to its supported units, to the E-8, or other GSMs via voice landline, UHF, VHF, hardwire KY-68, MSE, facsimile (FAX), , freetext hard copies, SATCOM, cellular telephone, TA-312, and STU-III messages. Operators may request images of a specific area through voice communication with the E-8. The Block I MGSM receives real-time MTI data and NRT SAR from the E-8 platform. It can also pull up UAV video on a small "window" on the console screen.


Important notes to remember about the MGSM are (read slide)


The LGSM system is comprised of two HMMWVs and two 15 kW generators. The LGSM does not have a telescoping mast. Data is received via this small radome antenna mounted on top of the vehicle.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Point to dome on top of LGSM

The Block I LGSM is exactly the same as the MGSM. The Block I LGSM has virtually the same capabilities as the Block I MGSM except that it can receive SATCOM on the move.


Important points to remember about the LGSM (read slide)


The CGS , when fielded , will provide commanders a greatly expanded and automated capability to receive, process, correlate, and display NRT intelligence data from many available sensors. Evolutionary growth and retrofit of existing GSMs will upgrade capabilities and functions. The CGS will have all the functions of the GSMs, to include improvements in processing, data reception, and data distribution. CGS will be able to receive, process, and correlate data directly from new and/or additional sensors and processors such as Advanced QUICKFIX (AQF), ground based common sensor (GBCS), and tactical exploitation of national capabilities (TENCAP) systems.

Now that we have discussed the hardware lets review in detail how an operator may use the system to it fullest capability.


You'll remember this screen from early. We'll examined the capability of the system in more detail. Due to the file size of this graphic, I have had to simulate the screens.


This simulation shows how the operator has the ability to draw in his own graphics. These can be used as cues to alert him to activity as the battle proceeds. In this example digitized maps are not being used. The red lines indicate road networks. The operator has outlined Named Areas of Interest that the commander has established and also drawn Phase Lines to monitor the progress of the operation .


The operator has the capability to display information downloaded from the Commanders Tactical Terminal. In this example emitter location data has been overlay on the operators screen.


This is an example of fused intelligence or cross cueing. The operator is receiving data from a live UAV mission. The position of the UAV is displayed on the monitor as an icon. GSMs and UAV ground control stations have the ability to talk with each other and can confirm

the presents of high value targets. Another example of Joint STARS and UAV's complementing each other is the use of UAV imagery when Joint STARS radar is affected by terrain masking. The collection manager could use the UAV to cover those areas the aircraft cannot see during a mission.


The operator has the ability open a third window. In this example a ongoing UAV mission is confirming the presents of a revetted arty firing battery that was not present on this previous file image.


Perhaps the most useful tool of the GSM is its ability to target movers. The operator can place his cross hair cursor on a column moving down the road. At ))))) hours he "picks" on the lead vehicle. After several updates he picks on the lead vehicle again. The system will tell the operator the speed and distance the column has traveled. By placing his cursor at the road intersection and requesting a "prediction" The operator may determine when the column will arrive at the intersection, If the column travels at the same speed and direction as the second "pick" the operator can pick on the road intersection and the system will predict when the head of the column will arrive at that location. The operator has the ability to contact arty assets and have "steel" falling on that location when the column arrives. UAV imagery could be used to confirm the column as a high value target.


This is the GSM fielding plan. (Read Slide)


Until all GSMs are fielding the following contingence plans are in place(read Slide).


Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will make significant contributions to the warfighting capability of operational forces. They greatly improve the timeliness of battlefield information while reducing the risk of capture or loss of manned RECCE assets. When compared to manned RECCE aircraft they are cost effective and versatile systems. While reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) are the premier missions of UAVs, they can also provide substantial support to intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB), situation development, battle management (BM), battle damage assessment (BDA), and even rear area security (RAS) to monitor our OPSEC posture.


Although much of the technology and equipment associated with the UAV are relatively new, the concept is old. Before the US entered World War I, the US Navy (USN) developed a seaplane that could operate without a pilot onboard. Experimentation continued on the concept through the 1920s and 1 930s. The Navy also developed and used a small plywood UAV in the Pacific in World War II to attack heavily defended targets.

The Army Air Corps experienced heavy losses of aircraft and trained aircrews in World War II and thus the Aphrodite Project was conceived . Aphrodite used old B-17 aircraft loaded with explosives, flown to altitude by a pilot, who then bailed out. A second B-17 assumed radio control of the unmanned aircraft and directed it to crash into a target. After World War II, drone B-1 7's were used in atom bomb tests in the South Pacific.

At Fort Huachuca in the late 1950s the Army placed cameras on target drones and developed an operational UAV reconnaissance system. Several years later they replaced the camera with a television system.

By 1964, an Air Force drone reconnaissance program, know as Buffalo Hunter, was under full development. A C-1 30D aircraft could carry up to four drones under it's wings, flying out of Vietnam they would launch them like missiles on a preprogrammed flight over enemy held territory. From the mid-1960s until the end of the Vietnam War, more than 3,000 missions were flown over North Vietnam and China.

The Navy also used UAVs during the Vietnam War. One program, called DASH, was a remote helicopter carrying a television camera and two 250-pound torpedoes was used to detect and destroy North Vietnam supply barges in Mekong Delta waterways. Although this program enjoyed several successful missions, the helicopter flight gyroscopes were not up to standard and the program was discontinued.

By the mid-1980s, a joint project, the Pioneer UAV system, came into being. The Pioneer was used in Operations Desert Storm and provided outstanding intelligence and fire support information to the commander.

Other countries such as Israel, the former Soviet Union, and several European countries have also integrated UAVs into military operations with a high degree of success.


UAVs are divided by class category. During operations where more than one system is available, UAV systems can be task organized and class categories selected to achieve the required flexibility and capability. This a listing of UAV class categories as recognized by the Department of Defense (DOD) UAV Master Plan. The categories are by range or flight hours, or both.

o UAV-Close Range (UAV-CR). Operational range will be approximately 50 kilometers

o UAV-Short Range (UAV-SR). Flight duration of 8 to 10 hours designed to penetrate into enemy airspace out to a range of 200 kilometers with datalink

o UAV-Endurance (UAV-E). Minimum of 24 hour's coverage and be capable of performing multiple missions simultaneously

UAV class categories and capabilities.

While there are differences in range and capabilities, all of these categories of UAVs are considered to be members of the family of UAVs. The family of UAVs concept is based upon commonality and interpretability. All ground receivers are capable of receiving the video of any other UAV within range, regardless of the class category.


The Predator, which has been used in ******* is classified as an endurance UAV.


With an impressive wing span of almost 50 feet it is a quiet large airframe. It is powered by a ROTAX snowmobile engine. Often it can be seen flying training mission from the airfield here at Ft Huachuca.


Predator can remain airborne for as long 40 hours. Line of sight control uses a C Band datalink and with a Ku satellite link the airframe can be remote controlled up to 500 miles away. Currently it has EO and IR payloads. Plans are to mount a Synthetic Aperture Radar package on the airframe as well.


The ground portion of the program consists of one control station housed in what resembles a racing car transport vehicle. A 40 foot maintenance trailer is also used.


The UAV-SR currently carries a day and night passive payload mounted on a stabilized platform assembly that can be lowered by a screw drive system; during IFR or emergency operations, the payload is retracted into the fuselage for protection. Payload functions can be controlled by either data-link or in a programmed mode of operation.


The GCS has two primary functions. First, its the primary means used to control, track, and operate the UAV. Second, it is used to manipulate the payload and receive and process telemetry and video downlinks. The GCS will also incorporate mission planning functions as well as the ability to process and disseminate intelligence and call for and adjust indirect fire. There are two GCSs per baseline system, both are mounted on a HMMWV. The GCS has two operator positions: a UAV operator position and a mission payload operator position. equipment consoles within the station.

o The left console is normally the pilot position.

o The center console contains the air vehicle location display (AVLD), which shows UAV location data and incorporates mission planning, processing, reporting, and various information and guidance functions. The center console also contains the ground station VCR, hard copy printer, and the communications controls.

O The right console is normally the payload operator position.

The left and right consoles are identical in capabilities, and functions can be transferred to either console upon command or in the event of a system failure.


A GCS can only communicate with and control one UAV at a time. However, through time sharing, it can control a relay vehicle and a mission vehicle simultaneously. The GCS can also place a mission UAV in programmed flight and would then be free to operate another UAV.


The GDT is the data-link antenna which is connected to the GCS is used to transmit Command & Control, reporting data, and video between the GCS and the UAV out to a range of 125 km. Using a relay UAV the range can be extended to 200 km.


There are a variety of methods used to launch the SR UAV. Launch methods include: rocket assisted take-off (RATO), and conventional rolling take-off. Methods of recovery include arresting gear and nets, normal rolling landings, and parachute recoveries.


The LRS is used to preflight, launch, and pass control of the UAV to a GCS for the mission phase of flight. Upon completion of the mission phase of flight the GCS returns control of the UAV to the LRS for recovery. There is one LRS per baseline. The LRS has one operator position with two consoles. The left console is identical to the GCS left console; it can therefore be used to pilot the UAV and control the payload. The right console contains the communications controls.


The MPS is used by the mission commander and data exploitation operator. During normal operations it is the focal point for communications in and out of the UAV operational unit. It also serves as a unit Command Post and provides facilities to plan and program flight missions and monitor unit operations. Upon completion of a mission plan, the mission plan is downloaded to a GCS or LRS, from which UAV operators will conduct the mission. The MPS is identical to the GCS with the exception that it contains a voice communications switchboard. As I said before, the GCS and MPS are identical with the exception of the voice communications switchboard. This means that for mission planning, UAV flight and mission payload operations, the systems are interchangeable. To control a UAV and payload with an MPS all that is required is connectivity between the MPS and either an LRT or GDT antenna. With the exception of the switchboard, a GCS would be fully capable of serving as an MPS.


A RATO launch is used when a runway is not available. With a RATO launch the UAV can takeoff from confined areas, damaged airfields, or even from ships. When used the RATO takes two and a half seconds to lift the UAV to 100 feet and accelerate it to 65 knots.

The MPU is a trailer mounted 10 Kw generator which is used to provide shelter power in a tactical environment. In addition to the generator, the MPU contains an invertor with a battery backup system in the event of generator failure.

The World Wide Power Interface (WWPI) is used in lieu of generator power. The WWPI can interface with all three phase power sources. The REMOTE VIDEO TERMINAL , which can be located at the supported unit's TOC, receives, displays, and records the UAV's video downlink. This one of the best capabilities of SR-UAV. It puts collected information direct in the hands of the support units commander.

1) Directions to Students: Now that we have finished looking at the assets available to us and have some appreciation of how to select the appropriate aircraft and sensor/technique to meet a mission requirement, we will conduct a Practical Exercise to further develop our skills and understanding. You have 1 hour to complete the P.E. is to be completed at your own pace using your own notes and references. If you have any questions, raise your hand and I will assist you.

2) Conduct of the P.E.:

3) P.E. After Action Review:

a) The objective of this P.E. was to have you apply your skills, knowledge in identifying capabilities and limitations of tactical systems by selecting appropriate sensors and aircraft in response to specific information requirements.

b) Have students present and explain answers for the P. E

c) Discuss the overall performance of the class in the P.E.

d) Clarify any errors and/or misunderstandings.

d. Conclusion

Review of main Points: During this class I have explained the capabilities and limitations of U.S. Tactical Imint sensors and platforms. You have learned the different types of imagery and how to best utilize them.

You have also learned the different types of imagery reports that you would most likely receive at Battalion and Brigade.

Questions and comments: Encourage and allow discussions as time permits.

Tie in: In this rapid changing world Intelligence will play a important role. All the intelligence disciplines must be used to combat the new emerging threats and the one discipline that will allow the commander to "see the battlefield" is IMINT. You now have the knowledge to successfully exploit imagery systems to meet your commander's requirements. Use it when you leave the school as it is an important element in the intelligence collection effort. Your reward will be a better knowledge of the enemy and the knowledge that your efforts have helped to ensure success on the battlefield. In subsequent blocks of instruction, you will learn how National IMINT systems can be used to support the tactical commander.