Another use of the Process Model is for data discovery and validation. One of the primary functions of a Process Model is to show relationships between activities and the information that is used to perform each process. Data can be extracted from the model and can be used to specify transactions that may, in turn, eventually be used to automate the process. After these data elements are documented in the data model, the Process Model can be referenced for validation purposes. Process Models are developed by persons with knowledge of the subject area under consideration. The team's knowledge is augmented and validated through interviews with other subject experts within the organization and from other available materials that are relevant, such as existing documents. Business objectives and viewpoint boundaries help the team determine what is relevant, which views to prepare, and what to include in each model.
Process Modeling is a rigorous technique that facilitates communication about how an organization really functions. It can be easily understood by business professionals and data processing professionals, and it can be used to document complex processes within a specified scope. Business professionals and end-users can review models without a great deal of difficulty because the technique uses a structured approach that follows the normal deductive thought process. This structured approach reflects a hierarchical design whereby each process is gradually refined to reflect greater levels of detail. These detailed diagrams and supporting documentation can precisely define systems requirements. As a result, needs can be identified and discussed in a common context.
A Process Model also includes a glossary that defines the terms, or labels, used on the diagrams and explanatory text in paragraph form that describes an entire diagram, including what goes on in each process and how activities in the diagram interact.
The term "ICOM" is the acronym for the four possible roles relative to a process:
The particular role of an ICOM is identified by the position of its arrow in relation to the process box, proceeding clockwise around the four sides of the process box. Refer to the representation of a process illustrated in Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1 ICOM Example
|PLAN and DIRECT INELLIGENCE||CONDUCT INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS||ANALYZE AREA of OPERATIONS|
|PLAN and DIRECT ELECTRONIC ATTACK||CONDUCT ELECTRONIC ATTACK||EVALUATE THREAT INFORMATION|
|PLAN and DIRECT COUNTERINTELLIGENCE||CONDUCT COUNTERINTELLIGENCE||CONDUCT COUNTERINTELLIGENCE|
Click here for full color view of sample decomposition Diagram (234K)
Figure 3-4 Sample Decomposition Diagram
The IDEF0 process modeling technique is a simple but rigorous technique that facilitates communication about how an organization functions in either its current or proposed future environment. The diagrams can be understood easily by both business professionals and data processing professionals and can be used to discuss complex processes.
The IDEF0 process modeling technique provides an opportunity for involvement and consensus among diverse members of an organization as they define a common view of their environment and a strategy for integration.
3.2 IEW PROCESS MODEL
The first step in the production of the process model was to assemble a small analytical team of individuals with extensive experience in IEW and analysis. After the team was assembled, the next step consisted of identifying and acquiring the necessary reference material. The initial references used to provide the framework upon which to build the IEW Process Model were the TRADOC Blueprint of the Battlefield (TRADOC Pam 11-9) and FM 34-1, Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations. The third step i
n the process consisted of developing a skeleton model. As the modeling process proceeded to lower decompositional levels, it became necessary to use an extensive library of field manuals, concept papers, and interviews with subject matter experts (SME) who were able to explain in detail how the functions of IEW are performed.
Early in the process, it was determined that the Blueprint of the Battlefield was limited in its description of several aspects of IEW operations. Inadequately addressed were such areas as IEW synchronization, multisensor cross cueing, continuously updated common threat picture, multi-echelon intelligence system of systems support, force protection missions of operations security and counterintelligence (CI), indications and warning, and the close relationship between intelligence and electronic attack . Similarly, published doctrinal sources were supplemented with SME interpretations of how IEW functions will be performed with the fielding of new systems and the implementation of evolving concepts.
Model continuity across echelons was achieved by expressing IEW functions using the familiar intelligence cycle (direct, collect, produce, and disseminate intelligence). The A0 level was decomposed into three broad processes:
Appropriate doctrinal publications, beginning with FM 34-1 and its implementing manuals were reviewed with careful attention given to understanding the IEW functions and information flows. Research materials were gathered to include FM and other doctrinal publications. Emerging concepts, such as the MI Branch Concept and explanatory briefings were studied to understand their effects on established doctrine. The goal was to develop a process model that is doctrine-based, but reflects the changes expected by new concepts, systems, and technological advancements.
Considering the complexity of the IEW process, model reviews by SME throughout the project were essential in providing the most current information possible about the way IEW functions are performed. At each stage of development, modifications to the model were made to reflect the added knowledge gained through SME reviews. These changes were discussed with project sponsors and SME to ensure they reflected the intent of the overall model and the detailed knowledge of the SME.
A complete copy of the IEW Process Model, from EAC down through Direct Support Company at Divisonal Maneuver Brigade, is included in Appendixes A.