The ASAS communications equipment provides essential connectivity and interface capabilities with a variety of Army and joint information systems. These information systems provide the G2 (S2) and ACE access into joint intelligence systems and gateways into allied systems in multinational operations. The combination of Army, joint, and special purpose intelligence communications systems provide interoperability between intelligence organizations and users at multiple echelons.
ASAS workstations are linked locally through a LAN and outside the ACE by a WAN. The SCI security level LAN allows workstations to exchange information and to share common communications interfaces. The WAN provides the ACE access to IEW organizations throughout the AO and theater long-haul communications systems.
ASAS workstations and the CCS or CAMPS are linked through a combination of a LAN and direct data exchange. The LAN allows workstations to exchange information with other workstations and to share a common database and communications interfaces. The ACE LAN operates at the SCI level. ASAS-RWS outside the ACE may be operated independently or on other collateral LANs.
The ASAS is interoperable with a wide range of Army and Joint communications systems. These systems form the WAN that underpins the intelligence architecture that the ACE uses to gather and disseminate intelligence. The networks that make up the WAN include multichannel, single-channel tactical radios, wire, and satellite systems. All are integrated to provide voice, data, and packet switch communications to the intelligence users and producers at multiple echelons. Most importantly, these communications systems allow the ASAS to exchange information with Army and Joint automated intelligence processors.
This section is an overview of the principal systems of the ACUS, CNR, and ADDS. These systems provide the Army communications support to the ABCS. Together with the joint communications systems discussed later in this chapter, they provide the framework for joint and Army split-based intelligence support to forward deployed Army forces.
The ACUS is a multi-user, common-user area system for high volume C2, operations, intelligence, administrative, and logistics communications. It consists of a series of nodal switching centers in a grid-like network connected primarily by terrestrial line of sight (LOS) multichannel radio systems. The system provides an integrated switching system from battalion through theater Army. The ACUS also provides interface points with access to strategic and sustaining base environments. Figure 4-1 is an example of a division MSE network.
Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE). MSE is the backbone of the ACUS communications system at corps and division. it is the primary system supporting ACE operations and ASAS connectivity. By providing digital communications from the corps rear area forward to the maneuver battalion, MSE extends the ASAS interoperability from theater Army to forward information collectors. These communications include telephone, facsimile, mobile radiotelephone, data transmission, and CNR network access. MSE secures transmissions to the collateral SECRET level. Protection of SCI requires use of an additional COMSEC variable applied from a DSVT by the subscriber before it is released to the MSE.
MSE provides both functional point-to point communications and geographic support to the designated units. Geographic support is provided through a gridded network of nodes and node centers to all elements requiring communications within a designated area. These nodes are interconnected by terrestrial LOS multichannel radios. Where terrain is restrictive or extended range is desired, troposcatter or satellite radio systems can be used. Each corps interfaces with other corps' through the switching nodes. The system is normally established and maintained by the corps' signal brigade based on the area communications plan.
The ASAS connectivity to the MSE is provided by the CCS or CAMPS through force entry switch, small extension nodes (SEN), or large extension nodes (LEN). Network access is established from a DSVT via wireline through a J-1077 junction box at the CCS or CAMPS. The incoming MSE signal is initially routed into the CCS or CAMPS where communications software converts it into a compatible protocol format. After conversion, all messages are automatically routed to the appropriate workstation or database based on plain language address (PLA) and routing indicators applied to each message. COMSEC protection and MSE on hook service is provided through the "S" variable in the DSVT for voice and data transmissions.
See FM 11-30, FM 11-37, and FM 11-38 for more information about the MSE.
The CNR provides a secondary means of data communications for the ASAS. It covers a broad spectrum of single-channel radio systems used for immediate C2. The CNR architecture consists of VHF FM radios, high frequency (HF) amplitude modulation (AM) radios, and UHF tactical satellite systems. The CNR systems are designed to meet the requirements of speed, reliability, and security on the battlefield.
Improved High Frequency Radio (IHFR). IHFR is the new family of secure tactical HF AM radios replacing systems such as the AN/PRC-7, AN/GRC-165, and AN/GRC-106. The IHFR extends and complements VHF FM communications networks in the corps and division. The IHFR is configured as the AN/GRC-193A (vehicular), AN/GRC-213 (manpack or vehicular), and the AN/PRC-104 (manpack). Beginning with ASAS Block II, the ASAS will be capable of IHFR communications.
Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS). SINCGARS is the new family of VHF FM radios replacing older FM equipment on a one-for-one basis. It provides secure voice and data transmission, a broad frequency spectrum, and a frequency-hopping capability. With an ICOM capability, it secures data to the SECRET level and provides low probability of intercept when operated in the frequency-hopping mode. However, when overlaid with a special "S" variable security device, frequency-hopping modes are voided. The ASAS CCS contains four SINCGARS transceivers operated in the single-channel mode for both voice and data communications. These radios are used primarily for voice and data communications with supporting IEW assets. If necessary, they can provide access to the MSE network or, if the MSE is not available, provide an alternate means of ASAS data communications.
Tactical Satellite (TACSAT). The TACSAT (AN/TSC-85B and AN/TSC936) provides secure long-haul Super High Frequency (SHF) voice and data satellite communications. It can interface and provide an internodal link between widely separated MSE node centers (NCs) or a gateway link between net control stations (NCSs). The system provides ASAS a communications link with higher echelon intelligence centers or forward elements during split-based operations.
See FM 11-30 and FM 24-1 for additional information on CNR operations.
The ADDS is an integrated C2 communications system providing NRT transmission capabilities to support high volume data networks. Additionally, it provides precise position, location, navigation, identification, time of day, and reporting information for units on the battlefield. ADDS meets the needs of users for a high speed, high volume, secure communications system to convey sensor traffic for evaluation and firing data for target engagement. The combination of time division multiple access (TDMA), frequency-hopping, and spread spectrum technologies provides resistance to enemy jamming. The system automatically relays data from the origin to the destination transparently to the user. The Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS), MSE Packet Switch Network (MPN), and Tactical Fire Direction System (TACFIRE) are examples of ADDSs.
Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS). The ASAS Block II and follow-on versions will possess an EPLRS capability. The EPLRS is a computer-based communications system designed to provide secure, jam-resistant, contention free, NRT data transmission and distribution to subscribers. Additionally, it provides unit identification, navigational aids, and automatic location reporting of tactical combat and combat support units. The EPLRS uses integral dual level (CONFIDENTIAL and SECRET) COMSEC with over-the-air rekeying, frequency-hopping, and error correction encoding as protection from electronic attack.
See FM 11-30 and FM 24-1 for additional information on ADDS.
This section is an overview of the primary joint communications systems through which intelligence flows. These systems support the daily maintenance of intelligence readiness and provide the communications foundation for split-based intelligence operations.
The DCS is a composite of certain Department of Defense (DOD) communications systems and networks. The system provides long-haul, point-to-point, and switched network telecommunications. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) provides centralized management and command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4 ) systems of the DCS. The US Army Information Systems Command is the Army's executive agent for the DISA. The communications networks of the DISA are discussed below.
Defense Switching Network (DSN). The DSN is the principal common user, switched, nonsecure voice communications network within the DCS. It consist of a worldwide network of commercial leased and government-owned facilities. Tactical DSN subscribers normally gain access through the Theater Communications System (TCS) using the AN/TTC-39 circuit switch. The TCS provides circuit or message switches and direct access to many worldwide DOD networks.
Defense Information Systems Network (DISN). DISA integrated the Defense Data Network (DDN) packet switching networks under the DISN. DISN provides DOD worldwide packet switched data communications through four physically separate networks. These networks were implemented with technology developed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) using packet switch nodes (PSNs). These PSNs accept inputs using the international standard x .25 set of protocols. Until completely replaced by DISN, the four networks are managed together as the DDN:
Under DISN, the four DDNs will remain physically separate and the x .25 PSNs replaced with commercially available Internet Protocol (IP) routers. Each network will employ IP routers to perform switching and routing functions. The trunk circuits that interconnect the routers may be shared by multiplexing the encrypted outputs of the routers. DIA will transition DSNET3 to an IP router network under the auspices of the JWICS program.
Automatic Digital Network (AUTODIN). DISA operates the AUTODIN system. AUTODIN is the DOD common user store-and-forward message switching network for all record message traffic. It consists of a network of fixed and mobile AUTODIN switching centers (ASCs) and AUTODIN communications centers. The current AUTODIN system evolved from the consolidation of the Defense Special Security Communications System (DSSCS) with the General Services (GENSER) AUTODIN system in the mid-1970s. While the two independent systems have been merged, each system has retained its own identity and mission function. GENSER AUTODIN (referred to as the "R" side) handles UNCLASSIFIED through TOP SECRET record message traffic including special category (SPECAT) type messages. DSSCS AUTODIN (referred to as the "Y" side) handles record message traffic containing SCI information. DISA is replacing the aged and inefficient AUTODIN with the modern E-mail based Defense Message System (DMS).
Each ASAS requires an AUTODIN routing indicator to exchange information. Router indicators identify the relationship of subscribers to their parent message switching center. As stated above, the "R" routers access the collateral security level record message traffic of the worldwide GENSER AUTODIN network, and the "Y" routers access the DSSCS for SCI AUTODIN message traffic. The ASAS CAMPS is discussed in terms of the "Y" and the "R" sides. Figure 4-2 is an example of intelligence use of AUTODIN communications between a deployed corps ACE and its CMISE at the corps garrison.
Defense Message System (DMS). While the DMS is a system in the sense that its components work together to provide message services, it is and will continue to be the composite result of many coordinated service and agency development and acquisition projects. DMS supports two classes of messages: organizational messages (formal record messages) and individual messages (informal E-mail). Its distributed message system supports on-line message preparation, coordination, and release of organizational messages. The DMS will replace the centralized AUTODIN message system, the DDN E-mail components, and the formats and procedures of the current message distribution baseline.
DODIIS is the DIA managed program that incorporates the DISN secure networks under a single architecture. The system defines the standards for intelligence systems and applications interoperability. The DODIIS provides, within limits, an integrated strategic to tactical user environment for performing identical intelligence functions on compatible systems. The system's primary components include the SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET), the JWICS, and the JDISS.
Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET). SIPRNET replaces the DDN DSNET1 as the SECRET portion of DISN. Its complete architecture will be achieved by constructing a new worldwide backbone router system. Various DOD router services and systems will migrate onto the SIPRNET backbone router network to serve the long-haul data transmission needs of the users. Transmission services will use smart multiplexer and 512 kilobytes per second (kbps) channels. Other transmission services will be acquired or leased as needed. Future expansion will progress to the T1 circuit data rate of 1.544 megabytes (mbps) and potentially to the T3 data rate of 45 mbps. High speed packet switched service will be provided through the use of IP routers. This SECRET router layer of the DISN is intended to support national defense C3I requirements.
JWICS. JWICS replaces the DDN DSNET3 as the SCI portion of DISN. It provides DODIIS users a SCI level high-speed multimedia network using high-capacity communications to handle data, voice, imagery, and graphics. The system uses JDISS as its primary means of operator interface and display. In much the same way as ASAS, JWICS is an evolutionary system. The JWICS program initial or pilot phase established a hub and spoke circuit switched T1 backbone for point-to-point and multipoint video teleconferences (VTCS), broadcast of the Defense Intelligence Network (DIN), and variable bandwidth packet switched data communications. The Hybrid JWICS phase removed the DSNET3 PSNS, re-homed the lines to JWICS IP routers, and extended the JWICS to additional sites to form a mesh network. Some sites will have video and data capability on T1 lines, and some sites will have strictly data capability (64 kbps lines). The final phase--Goal JWICS--will replace Hybrid JWICS with a single commercially available technology that can accommodate data, voice, and video. This technology is expected to be asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). JWICS will ride the DISN as an overlay when the DISN acquires T3 lines.
SPECIAL PURPOSE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNICATIONS
This section describes the special purpose intelligence communications systems supporting Army IEW operations. These systems provide intelligence organizations the dedicated and flexible intelligence communications needed to support commanders across the range of military operations.
A number of broadcast systems support the dissemination of tactical intelligence to commanders at multiple echelons. These systems are usually designed to "push" formatted time-sensitive information to tactical forces. This information includes multi-sensor national and theater electronic intelligence (ELINT) and imagery-derived data, and multisource fused tactical force disposition information.
One system, the Tactical Related Applications (TRAP) broadcast system provides worldwide dissemination of ELINT, contact reports, and parametric information at the SECRET level. This information is broadcast from one of nine gateways, using Tactical Data Information Exchange System-Broadcast (TADIXS-B) message format over a shared sideband of the UHF satellite communications channel used for the Navy's Fleet Secure Voice communications. Selected Air Force units receive the TRAP broadcast using their CONSTANT SOURCE terminals; Army units use the Synthesized UHF Computer Controlled Equipment Substation (SUCCESS) radio; and Navy and Marine Corps use Tactical Receive Equipment (TRE) terminals. Other common broadcast systems are--
See Joint Pub 2-0 and Joint Pub 6-0 for more information on joint communications support to intelligence operations. Figure 4-3 illustrates UHF broadcast dissemination coverage.
The Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT), formerly the Commanders Tactical Terminal (CTT), is a family of special application UHF tactical intelligence terminals which provide the capability to disseminate time sensitive Command, Control, Communications, Computer, and Intelligence (C41), and battlefield targeting information to tactical commanders-and intelligence nodes. This information is provided in near-real-time and allows selected collection managers at all echelons a full-duplex capability to dynamically adjust pre-planned tasking. The JTT has the capability of operating in the following intelligence dissemination networks: TRIXS, TIBS, TRAP, and TADIXS-B. The ASAS CCS will receive the AN/USR-55, a full duplex data/half duplex voice version of the JTT Hybrid (JTT/H3), and the Joint STARS GSM will integrate the AN/USR-6, a receive only version of Hybrid (JTT/H-R3). Currently, the CTT/Hybrid Receive-Only (CTT/H-R) 2 channel system (AN/USR-5) is being fielded with the GSM; however, these systems will ultimately be replaced by the JTT. The United States Air Force (USAF) Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System (CARS), the Army GUARDRAIL IPF, and tactical units in the TRIXS net use the JTT/H-R to disseminate information. The JTT/H-R also provides the commander access to theater and national intelligence through the TIBS and TRAP.
The SUCCESS UHF radio is a fully automated microprocessor based, computer-controlled UHF radio. Data may be transmitted and received simultaneously over its one transmit and three receive channels. Two SUCCESS radios may be stacked to provide an integrated, fully redundant, two transmit and six receive channel capability. The radio is designed to communicate with selected airborne, terrestrial, and satellite systems. It contains a TRE processor and can process all TRAP and TADIXS-B formatted transmissions. The system is designed for ground or mobile sheltered environments. The DIA accredited communication subsystem is compatible with TROJAN, MSE, DIN or DSSCS, as well as all Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) systems.
The AN/TSQ-175 TIGER consist of an RT-1288A, KG-84A, and laptop commercial processing system. It supports data communications relay using NRP between forward deployed IEW sensors and the ASAS CCS.
The TDN is a router, TCP or IP based network. It is overlaid on the communications network that links the AN/FSQ-144(V) TROJAN Classic central operating facilities and switch extensions at various US bases with remote collection facilities worldwide. The TDN is subdivided into three electronically and physically separated networks that correspond to the three security levels required of the system. As with the TROJAN Classic architecture, the TDN has a TROJAN Network Control Center in the TROJAN Switch Center at Fort Belvoir, VA, to provide configuration control and network management. The three networks of the TDN are--
TROJAN Data Network-1 (TDN-1). The TDN-1 operates at the SECRET security level and is the gateway to DSNET1. It provides data exchange between TROJAN Classic facilities, switch extensions, and Special Purpose Intelligence Remote Integrated Terminals (SPIRITs).
TROJAN Data Network-2 (TDN-2). The TDN-2 operates at the TOP SECRET/SCI level. It provides data exchange between selected TROJAN sites requiring access to the NSA network.
TROJAN Data Network-3 (TDN-3). The TDN-3 operates at the TOP SECRET/SCI security level and is the gateway to JWICS. It provides data exchange between TROJAN Classic facilities, switch extensions, and SPIRITs.
TROJAN SPECIAL PURPOSE INTELLIGENCE REMOTE INTEGRATED TERMINAL (SPIRIT) II:
The AN/TSQ-190(V), TROJAN SPIRIT II, provides worldwide secure voice, data, facsimile, video, and secondary imagery dissemination capabilities.
The TROJAN SPIRIT II is a corps and division asset that provides dedicated intelligence communications. The system's SATCOM system supports up to 14 circuits (8 SCI and 6 collateral) using variable baud rates from 4.8 to 512 kbps per channel on C, Ku, or X frequency bands. System connectivity capability includes DSNET1 and DSNET3, MSE, and TPN interfaces, as well as LAN connectivity. The TROJAN SPIRIT II is shelter mounted on two HMMWVs. It ties into TDN as a mobile switch extension from tactical. The system's two workstations also allow the operators to receive and disseminate secondary imagery, SIGINT databases and reports, and UAV video. This capability allows the TROJAN SPIRIT to serve as a temporary communications set for the ACE during redeployment or split-based operations. Figure 4-4 shows TROJAN SPIRIT's connectivity potential.
See FM 34-10-2 for additional information on Army special purpose intelligence communications systems.
ARMY INTELLIGENCE PROCESSORS
The ASAS is not the only processing system found in the ACE or supporting IEW operations. Other systems provide the ACE access to broadcast intelligence or support missions not envisioned for ASAS Block I. The systems described below are found in the ACE at theater Army, corps, division, brigade, separate brigade, and ACR. Some of these systems will be eliminated and their missions assumed by the ASAS Block II and GCS when those systems are fielded.
The ETUT is a theater Army and corps asset. It is an intermediate processing system that receives TENCAP digital secondary imagery and correlated ELINT via ACUS or SUCCESS radio. Equipped with three analyst workstations, the ETUT provides secondary imagery for use in targeting and NRT ELINT data to the SIGINT team of the ACE technical control and processing section. The system is designed as the interface between the EPDS for SIGINT data and the Imagery Processing and Dissemination System (IPDS) or Mobile Imagery Exploitation System (MIES) for imagery data. It also provides an automated collection management capability.
ETUT communications consists of a SUCCESS radio which provides simultaneous connectivity with multiple airborne and spaceborne platforms as well as the TRAP and TADIXS-B interface. The ELINT position maintains a database which is a reflection of the data manipulated in the EPDS. The imagery management position interfaces with a variety of corps, theater, and national imagery systems to provide softcopy manipulatable imagery, as well as a database of exploited imagery reports.
The AN/UYK-71A, FAISS, is a corps and division Disk Operating System (DOS) compatible processing and dissemination system. The system was one of the first desktop computers fielded to corps through ACR TCAEs in the continental United States (CONUS). The system allows analysts to import, export, and manage SIGINT, topographic, collateral, and national systems databases and messages. Any database records, such as unit position or topographic indicators, can be plotted on maps displayed on the system's video monitors. The FAISS will be retained in some units to provide a minimum automation capability until ASAS is fully fielded.
The primary mission of the GSM is to receive and process Joint STARS imagery data to support targeting, situation development, and battle command. It can also receive UAV video and, via its built-in JTT, collateral broadcast intelligence. The GSM is found at each echelon from theater Army to brigade and ACR. In addition to the main and forward command posts at corps, division, brigade, and ACR, a GSM is normally located with the main command posts of aviation and artillery brigades. There are two operator positions in the GSM and a remote terminal that can be positioned in the supported unit's command post or ACE. The prototype system was the Interim GSM (IGSM). Production versions are the Medium GSM (MGSM) and Light GSM (LGSM). The objective system is the common ground station (CGS). The LGSM is projected to evolve into the CGS.
The MITT is the downsized version of the Tactical High Mobility Terminal (THMT) and replaces the THMT in the force structure. The MITT is a division ACE asset. It is an intermediate processing system that receives TENCAP digital secondary imagery and correlated ELINT via ACUS or SUCCESS radio. It receives, annotates, and transmits secondary imagery. It can also receive, process, and disseminate SIGINT data and maintain a correlated database.
The MITT is equipped with the SUCCESS radio for stand-alone secure communications capable of receiving TRAP, UHF SATCOM, and point-to-point terrestrial communications. The MITT is accredited for and compatible with the TROJAN network, MSE, DIN, and DSSCS, as well as all TENCAP systems. By positioning the MITT remote terminal with the target nomination team, it provides secondary imagery for use in targeting. The system provides NRT ELINT data to the SIGINT team of the ACE technical control and processing section.
The AN/TSQ-163, Top Graphic SSP-S PI, is a transportable, downsized, lightweight addition to the SSP-S found in the theater Army MI brigade. The SSP-S PI provides enhanced communications and SIGINT processing to the current SSP-S. Communications software permits the system to interface with theater and communications systems. The SIGINT processing system uses ASAS-SSW and Core Analyst Tool System (CATS) applications software. The SSP-S PI communications subsystem supports secure character-oriented messages using COMCAT, USMTF, and USSID message formats.
The WARRIOR workstation is an ASAS prototype system originally developed as a joint effort of the Project Manager-intelligence Fusion and United States Army, Europe (USAEUR). Designated as ASAS-W, it is a highly effective stand-alone intelligence processor that can be used in place of or to complement the ASAS-RWS in the G2 (S2). Employing a UNIX operating system and commercial hardware, the WARRIOR can receive, store, process, and display data, graphics, and imagery products. The system's communications software supports LAN and WAN connectivity. Lessons learned from units which have used the system in CONUS, Europe, Korea, and Southwest Asia have been incorporated into the WARLORD applications software resident on ASAS-RWS of ASAS-Extended.
See FM 34-10-2 for additional information on Army intelligence processors.
JOINT AND SERVICE INTELLIGENCE PROCESSORS
The ASAS is not the only processing system supporting military operations. Joint and service component intelligence processing systems directly and indirectly contribute to the IEW operations of the ACE. The systems described below are found in joint and service component intelligence organizations that may support Army operations.
DITDS is a message handling system with specialized software tools designed to support and facilitate the unique data handling requirements of the intelligence community. These tools allow the operator to receive incoming message traffic and create, manage, and manipulate databases. DIA is the proponent agency for DITDS. A number of government and military organizations use DITDS-format systems under different names. Other names for DITDS include--
The types of databases that fall under each of these DITDS-format systems varies by organization, but are all manipulated using the same DITDS software tools.
The JDISS is a deployable laptop or desktop workstation that can operate where there is space for a computer and access to JWICS. It is a multimedia system supporting a broad range of peripheral equipment including CD-ROM, scanners, digital cameras, mensuration modules, Tactical Communications-2 (TACO-2) and a variety of printers. The system is an integrated set of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and UNIX-based software applications. Its applications software includes word processing, E-mail, CHATTER, presentation graphics, spreadsheets, database management, imagery manipulation and dissemination, mapping, and remote access. Communications interfaces can be configured to meet specific user requirements for interoperability between JDISS users at strategic, operational, and tactical levels. JDISS can be installed on ASAS Block I SSWs and will be resident on all follow-on ASAS versions.
The JMST, formerly known as Collection Management Support Tools, is a UNIX based system that provides a collection manager with an automated means of tasking national, theater, and organic collection assets in support of operations. Rapidly accessible databases allow the user to review asset capabilities, ensure efficient tasking of assets, and track the status of asset tasking. JMST supports collection management through the use of platform and target area coverage, along with timelines for planned missions. System functions include asset capability and availability analysis, message processing of over 30 message types and formats, full-duplex accredited communications, database management of an interactive operation with over 20 databases (target, contact, references, and symbology), and system security administration.
Typically, the intelligence architecture calls for data flow from national sources such as DIA into a Theater Distribution Host. The theater JIC flows intelligence data down to the Air Operations Center (AOC) via the Combat Intelligence System's Data Management (CIS-DM) server. CIS-DM feeds the Contingency Theater Automated Planning System (CTAPS) by correlating the integrated database (IDB) and the automatic associator (from Constant Source) data. The CIS Targeting Module (TM), formerly Rapid Application of Air Power, uses this data to generate the Target Nomination List (TNL) and associated weaponeering loads. CIS then passes the TNL to the Advanced Planning System (APS) to support the Air Tasking Order (ATO) build. (Note: APS has been adopted as the Joint ATO build system.) The unit mission planning cell (MPC) and squadron operations use CIS to--
Hardware included with the system allows the user to print color maps and full-size map overlays, print color or black and white briefing slides, scan images, and print hardcopy photographs.
Intelligence support functions have been incorporated into the Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS), the Navy's primary C2 system afloat. This includes those functions previously found in the Naval Intelligence Processing System (NIPS), and the JDISS functions now being fielded. For example, on an aircraft carrier the JDISS functions will be available on the SCI-level Navy Tactical Command System-Afloat workstation on a LAN linking the Carrier Intelligence Center (CVIC), the Ship Signal Exploitation Space (SSES), and the Supplementary Plot (SUPPLOT). The SUPPLOT is the SCI area to the Flag Command Center. However, fleet units will still rely on support from centers ashore, especially the maritime JICs (Atlantic and Pacific), for processing high volume data from non-organic sensors, and for the picture of the battle space beyond the range of the afloat force's organic sensors. Shipboard JDISS, connected to the ship's SHF communications system, is extremely bandwidth limited and consequently slow. NISTs are increasingly deploying to JTFs embarked aboard command ships at sea and are bringing their own portable JDISS. Planning must also include reserved bandwidth, stabilized antennas, and a 360-degree field of view (FOV) of the COMSATs, because of a rolling sea state and heading changes of the ship.
The Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) is the Marine Corps' primary intelligence processing system supporting Marine IEW operations. It is a UNIX-based modular, three tiered, ADP system which provides multisource intelligence support to the Marine Component and Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF). JDISS communications functionality is incorporated into the IAS. This provides interoperability with theater and JTF JICs and access to DSNET3 and JWICS. IAS may operate at either the collateral GENSER or DSSCS SCI-level, and it incorporates a secondary imagery dissemination capability.
Intelligence support to Special Operations Forces (SOF) is provided via SOCRATES. SOCRATES encompasses total intelligence support for SOF mission activities, including computers, databases, intelligence communications systems, secure phones, facsimile equipment, imagery processing, and secondary imagery dissemination equipment. SOCRATES integrated existing Intelligence Data Handling System (IDHS) and the DITDS, which hosts a database specifically focused on terrorism and OOTW into a LAN-based, multi-functional intelligence support system. This capability (including ADP, secure voice, open source and classified message traffic, video mapping, softcopy imagery processing, and secondary imagery dissemination) is extended to USSOCOM forces using the USSOCOM SCAMPI, a leased line communications link. SOCRATES also provides full access to national intelligence systems and databases. Future SOCRATES will focus on providing on-line connectivity to operational units and theater SOF, and development of a rugged, portable SOCRATES workstation. Additionally, SOCRATES will transition into a UNIX environment employing the JDISS architecture, and then will evolve into a client server environment.
JOINT AND SERVICE INTELLIGENCE DATABASES
Databases of information are maintained by all government agencies and services, to include ASAS-equipped Army units down to the brigade level. Access to databases will generally be given on a need-to-know basis and with the permission of the database's proponent agency. Protocol to enter these databases differs with each one and each is subject to change.
The IDB resides on the MIIDS architecture and supports general MI production. The IDB is the primary DIA intelligence database providing integrated data on foreign military organizations worldwide. The IDB data and structure supersedes the Defense Intelligence Order of Battle System (DIOBS), the Automated Intelligence Installation File (AIIF), and the Defense Intelligence Equipment Index (DIEQP). DIA is the proponent agency for MIIDS and IDB.
In CONUS, the US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Automated Intelligence Support Activity (FAISA) at Fort Bragg, NC, has access to the MIIDS and IDB by tactical users of the ASAS. They maintain a complete copy of DIAs MIIDS and IDB and update file transactions in order to support the tactical user. This section discusses how to obtain files containing MIIDS data sets and updates.
Obtaining MIIDS. There are currently three methods of obtaining MIIDS base loads and updates.
The initial ASAS Block I software does not allow for direct access from ASAS to the FAISA System to accomplish file transfer of MIIDS and IDB files. To get to the data, the unit will need an intermediate host on the LAN that will do the job. In most cases, field service support personnel will accomplish all the file transfers for the unit.
IDB File Types. There are two types of IDB files on the FAISA System:
The database listing in Table 4-1 is not all-inclusive. Access to databases and files is based on mission and justification.