On the modern battlefield, the commander has access to an ever-growing volume of information from which to assess the situation and lead his command. He must quickly assimilate this information in order to influence the outcome of the operation; prioritize and allocate resources; assess and take risks; and understand the needs of higher and subordinate commanders. The commander depends upon a skilled G2 (S2) working within his intent to effectively direct and control his IEW effort. The ACE equipped with the ASAS is the G2's (S2's) primary organization for controlling IEW operations and producing intelligence.
The mission of the ACE is to perform collection management; produce all-source intelligence; provide IEW technical control; and disseminate intelligence and targeting data. The ACE supports the commander in executing battle command and planning future missions across the range of military operations.
The ACE integrates the missions, functions, and resources of the former technical control and analysis element (TCAE) and TOC support element (TOCSE) at corps, division, separate brigade, and ACR. At theater Army, the ACE replaces the Echelons Above Corps Intelligence Center (EACIC) and the TCAE. As the ACT, it replaces the IEW support element (IEWSE) and improves support at the divisional maneuver brigade. The ACE centralizes analysis and collection management in one organization under the operational control (OPCON) of the G2 (S2). The formation of the ACE goes beyond consolidation or collocation. The ACE provides balance to all-source analysis products and synergy to the execution of CI, human intelligence (HUMINT), IMINT, and SIGINT operations.
At theater Army, the ACE is organic to the operations battalion of the theater Army MI brigade. Under the direction of the theater Army G2, it works closely with the theater Joint Intelligence Center (JIC) to support the ground forces intelligence requirements of the theater Army commander and subordinates. The theater Army ACE is an integral element in IEW support to joint operations and the subordinate ground component. It supports the G2, and subordinate Army Force (ARFOR) by maintaining and deconflicting the theater's databases on contingency area threat ground forces. The ACE, like the JIC, is an all-source intelligence center that gathers and disseminates intelligence in response to the commander's requirements. In war or OOTW, the ACE complements the JIC and, with service component augmentation, can become the joint intelligence element of a joint task force (JTF). The common features of the ACE and JIC contribute to effective joint intelligence support of ARFOR units in war and OOTW.
See FM 34-37 and FM 100-7 for more information on theater Army IEW operations.
The corps ACE develops all-source intelligence needed to support corps contingency planning and operations. The ACE is organic to the operations battalion of the corps MI brigade although under the OPCON of the corps G2. The scope of corps ACE operations differs from those at lower echelons, although the basic process remains the same. The ACE links into a network of specialized single discipline intelligence collection assets and processors. The mix of these systems and access to joint intelligence activities are tailored to the specific demands of the operation and availability of resources.
Corps Military Intelligence Support Element (CMISE). The CMISE from the theater MI brigade provides the corps G2 and ACE with an expanded and flexible intelligence capability. Its soldiers form a team of experts familiar with corps, theater, and national intelligence systems and structures. Fully integrated into ACE operations, the CMISE provides the corps greater access to the EAC intelligence and can serve as its intelligence support base during exercises and split-base operations. Some CMISE functions are--
See FM 34-25 and FM 100-15 for more information on corps IEW operations.
The ACE is organic to the Headquarters, Headquarters and Operations Company (HHOC) of the divisional MI battalion. OPCON to the division G2, the ACE supports the commander's all-source intelligence and targeting requirements. The ACE is the focal point for the division's IEW collection management and synchronization effort. The division ACE works closely with the MI battalion TOC to accomplish this effort. In coordination with the G2 plans and operations sections, the ACE performs requirements management, mission management, and technical control of IEW assets. The MI battalion commander performs asset management in accordance with the division commander's orders, the G2's direction, and the technical control of the ACE.
See FM 34-10 and FM 71-100 for more information on division IEW operations.
The ACT expands the mission, functions, and resources formerly found in the IEWSE and MI company team. The ACT is organic to the direct support (DS) MI company and normally collocates with the company CP at the brigade TOC. Unlike the ACE at higher echelons, the ACT is not normally under OPCON of the brigade S2. Under the direction of the DS MI company commander, the ACT provides the brigade S2 automated intelligence processing, analysis, and dissemination capabilities. In addition, the MI company commander uses the ACT to support asset management and reporting of subordinate CI, HUMINT, and IMINT teams. The ACT uses its ASAS workstation to access databases, reports, graphics, and other products at higher echelon organizations, primarily the division's ACE. When augmented with the TROJAN SPIRIT, the ACT can conduct split-based operations, "pulling" support from an intelligence support base outside the AO.
See FM 7-30, FM 34-10, FM 34-80, and FM 71-3 for more information on brigade IEW operations.
The ACE integrates the missions, functions, and resources formerly found in the TCAE of the MI company and TOCSE of the separate brigade and ACR. The ACE is organic to the Ml company of the ACR or separate brigade. Although smaller in size, the mission of the ACE at the ACR and separate brigade remains the same as those at higher echelons. Under the OPCON of the S2, it performs collection management; produces all-source intelligence; provides IEW technical control; and disseminates intelligence and targeting information.
See FM 7-30, FM 17-95, FM 34-35, and FM 71-3 for additional information on separate brigade and ACE IEW operations.
The ACE is organized on the tables of organization and equipment (TO&E) of the theater MI brigade, corps MI brigade, divisional MI battalion, separate brigade MI company, and ACR MI company. It consists of a headquarters element, technical control and processing section, and an all-source intelligence section. Variations to this base ACE organization may occur based on echelon and mission. The remainder of this chapter describes the division ACE and provides a common reference for ACE operations at all echelons. Figure 2-1 outlines the A-series TO&E for the division ACE.
The ACE headquarters element exercises overall supervision of current and future ACE operations. The ACE chief is a key player in ensuring the ACE focuses on and synchronizes IEW with the commander's concept of operation and his intelligence requirements. The headquarters is also responsible for ASAS communications control set (CCS) and TROJAN SPIRIT communications.
The all-source intelligence section consists of four major teams: all-source production, collection management, target nomination, and dissemination. In this section, analysts perform situation development, IPB, ASCDB maintenance, target development, force protection, battle damage assessment (BDA), and collection management. This section is also responsible for coordinating processing and communications support from subordinate Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) ground station module (GSM) and MITT teams.
The technical control and processing section consists of three subordinate analysis teams: SIGINT, HUMINT and CI, and IMINT. In this section, analysts perform processing, analysis, reporting, and database management by intelligence discipline or function. The section--
ACE operations are a team effort that depend on each soldier performing his tasks to the best of his ability and supporting the work of others. From analyst to leader, each has a responsibility for ensuring the commander is effectively supported by the Intelligence BOS. Some areas of emphasis include control and synchronization, intelligence production, and targeting. These areas and their associated key personnel are described below:
The ACE supports the integration, control, and synchronization of the commander's intelligence effort. The G2 (S2), MI commander, ACE chief, and ACE collection manager are key players in planning and executing IEW operations. They ensure IEW operations support the commander's requirements, provide situational awareness, and support targeting.
G2 (S2). As the senior intelligence officer, the G2 (S2) directs the commander's intelligence effort and exercises operational control of the ACE. As the ARFOR G2 (S2), he is responsible for establishing, reconciling, and maintaining the ARFOR'S primary "ground truth" database on threat ground forces. The G2 (S2)--
MI Commander. The MI commander plans and directs the employment of his subordinate IEW assets. He must understand the supported commander's intent and priority intelligence requirements (PIR), operational or tactical objectives, overall scheme of maneuver and fire, and intelligence collection plan to effectively employ his IEW assets. The MI commander may be frequently absent from his command post to coordinate with the G2 (S2) and personally oversee the IEW operations of subordinates. He therefore relies on his S3 to supervise the TOC and execute asset management of unit IEW assets to include supporting or reinforcing assets. The S3 works closely with the ACE to ensure IEW assets are effectively employed and provided ACE technical support needed to execute the mission.
ACE Chief. The ACE chief focuses and prioritizes work, supervises interaction between sections, and task organizes the ACE resources to meet analytic demands. He is responsible to the G2 (S2) for producing timely, relevant, accurate, and predictive intelligence which answers the commander's PIR. The ACE chief accomplishes his mission by evaluating and tracking requirements, focusing the collection and analysis effort, and reviewing ACE products for quality and timeliness. He is supported by a staff of officers, warrant officers (WOs), and noncommissioned officers (NCOs) who supervise the production and dissemination of intelligence, targeting information, and technical data. Along with his collection manager, the ACE chief interacts with the G2 (S2) and MI commander to ensure synchronization of IEW support with the commander's operation.
ACE Collection Manager. The ACE collection manager supervises the requirements and mission management portions of the collection management and synchronization process. This requires close working relationships with the G3 (S3) section, the MI unit, and other ACE teams to ensure the collection and synchronization plan is dynamic and linked to the fire support and operations plans. Figure 2-2 shows the basic steps of the collection management process used to control and synchronize IEW operations. Some of the collection manager's responsibilities include--
See FM 34-1, FM 34-2, and FM 101-5 for information on staff and command intelligence responsibilities, collection management, and synchronization.
All-source intelligence production is the heart of the ACE. In the ACE, production is a single, integrated system that merges often separated activities of single-discipline analysis, all-source analysis, database development, and technical control. Within the ACE, the "battle captain" keeps supervisors and analysts focused on the commander's PIR and the IEW effort synchronized with the commander's operations. The analysis elements gather information from multiple echelons and sources to produce intelligence products and technical data that meet the commander's maneuver, targeting, BDA, and other IEW support requirements. Figure 2-3 depicts the basic steps of the all source intelligence production process.
Battle Captain. The battle captain supervises the ACE analysis, target nomination, collection management, technical control, and dissemination operations during his shift. As a key leader within the ACE, the battle captain ensures subordinate supervisors and analysts are focused on the commander's PIR and synchronized with the command's operations. He accomplishes his duties by retaining personal mobility within the ACE, communicating with ACE personnel and other staff elements, and maintaining situational awareness within the ACE. His ability to move freely within the ACE helps him to focus the ACE and apply his knowledge and experience where it can be most beneficial.
All-Source Intelligence Section Chief. The all-source intelligence section chief oversees the all-source intelligence fusion, target nomination, collection management, and dissemination responsibilities of the ACE. He coordinates the efforts of his section with other elements such as the engineer terrain team and the Air Force weather team. During operations, the section chief serves as a shift supervisor and, in that capacity, is referred to as the ACE battle captain.
Technical Control and Processing Section Chief. The technical control and processing section chief supervises single-discipline intelligence production and technical supped to SIGINT and EW operations. He works closely with the all-source intelligence section to maintain situational awareness and to ensure availability of single-discipline products and technical support. During operations, the section chief serves as a shift supervisor on the shift opposite the all-source intelligence section chief and executes those battle captain duties described above.
See FM 34-3 and FM 34-130 for additional information on analysis and IPB.
Key players in IEW support to targeting and target development are the G2 (S2), the FAIO, and the EWO. Supported by the ACE target nomination team, they work with other ACE sections and staff elements of the command to support the targeting process. Interaction by the ACE with the fire support cell and deep operations coordination cell (DOCC) is essential to effective IEW support to targeting for both lethal and nonlethal fires.
G2 (S2). As a member of the targeting team, the G2 (S2) or his representative uses intelligence, particularly IPB products, to identify decisive points and enemy high-value targets (HVTs). These HVTs are reduced during the targeting process shown in Figure 2-4 to a set of high-payoff targets (HPTs). The G2 (S2) works with the G3 (S3) and fire support officer (FSO) to develop a BDA methodology that evaluates the success of the commander's operational and targeting actions. He advises the commander and FSO on the capability of IEW assets to acquire and track HPTs as well as evaluate battle damage information on HPTs previously designated as PIR.
Field Artillery Intelligence Officer. The FAIO is an important liaison between the ACE and the fire support cell. He provides the ACE with a detailed understanding of the targeting process, attack system information requirements and target acquisition system capabilities. The FAIO works with the ACE to develop an intelligence collection plan that supports targeting and BDA related PIR. During operations, the FAIO helps the ACE identify and nominate potential targets to the fire support cell.
Electronic Warfare Officer. The EWO is the focal point for planning and managing EW operations. He works closely with the G3 (S3), FSE, and DOCC to ensure EW assets are properly allocated and synchronized with the scheme of fire and maneuver. The EWO works with the ACE, specifically the collection manager, to develop EW tasking for subordinate or nonorganic EW assets capable of executing his EW plan. He also works with the command's signal officer to reduce the possibility of electronic fratricide.
See FM 34-2, FM 34-3, FM 34-40-7, and FM 6-20-10 for additional information on IEW support to targeting and the targeting process.
FORCE PROJECTION OPERATIONS
The G2 (S2) and the ACE capitalize on the flexibility and power of the ASAS to support the commander's IEW requirements in peace, war, and OOTW. The ACE chief configures the ACE and components of the ASAS to provide seamless uninterrupted intelligence support from predeployment through redeployment stages of a force projection operation. Throughout the operation, the ACE uses its ASAS to update databases, develop intelligence products, disseminate intelligence, and control IEW operations.
After alert or activation of the contingency plan, the G2 (S2) surges the intelligence effort to support the commander's decision making, fill information voids, refine intelligence products, and prepare the initial entry IEW support. During mobilization and predeployment stages, the ACE exchanges information and databases with other intelligence organizations at higher and lower echelons. In particular, the ACE draws on the resources and databases of the theater Army ACE. If not already in place, the ACE establishes connectivity and database access with other service, joint, national, and RC intelligence activities that collect against or possess information on the contingency area. The connectivity and database access established or refined during this stage is essential to the success of initial top-down intelligence support and split-based intelligence operations. At all echelons, the ACE operates from garrison sites and maintains communications with higher and subordinate units. This stage includes the detailed planning, RC integration, mission-focused training, and initial tactical tailoring that will lead to successful IEW support to the force projection operation.
During the deployment stage, key intelligence personnel and equipment are placed into the deployment flow early. The ACE of the next higher echelon to the deploying force normally forms the intelligence support base. This allows the deploying force to send a Deployable Intelligence Support Element (DISE) with the initial entry force and to continue preparing the remainder of its ACE for movement without compromising intelligence support to the commander. The DISE provides immediate split-based intelligence support to the assault command post. The remainder of the deploying G2 (S2) staff and ACE locate with the rest of the primary staff at the staging base. Throughout the deployment stage, the DISE and units in movement receive continuous support from the intelligence support base.
Intelligence Support Base. An ACE normally forms the intelligence support base of a split-based operation. The intelligence support base allows the deployed commander to pull from his habitual peacetime sources and complements support from in-theater joint intelligence elements. During the early stages of force projection, split-based operations reduce the possibility of intelligence shortfalls which could arise from reliance on deploying intelligence organizations and evolving communications architectures. The support base is responsive to the needs of the deployed commander and G2 (S2) yet is not intended to circumvent the joint intelligence channels or levy taskings beyond its organic assets. The extent and duration of split-based intelligence support must be consistent with and supportive of the theater or JTF J2's overall intelligence plan. As the JTF commander's senior intelligence officer, the J2 is responsible for theater or JTF intelligence operations and support to subordinate forces.
Deployable Intelligence Support Element. A DISE is an integral part of IEW support to force projection operations. it is not a permanent organization, specific unit, or quantity of equipment but a tactically tailored support team, uniquely configured for each operation. It provides the deployed commander with assured intelligence support by augmenting his intelligence staff with the communications, automated intelligence processing, and broadcast downlink systems needed to execute split-based intelligence operations. Split-based operations provide the commander with access from his forward deployed command post to his intelligence support base outside the area of operation (AO). As the forward element of the ACE, the DISE is normally the foundation on which a full ACE is formed after the lodgement is secured and follow-on operations begin.
When using the split-based configuration, planning for communications connectivity and early deployment of a DISE are essential. The DISE is kept small enough to allow its deployment with the initial entry force. Once alerted, DISE personnel upload appropriate databases and map products needed to support the entry force. This material comes from the intelligence support base, theater Army ACE, or, if necessary, directly from national databases for short notice deployments.
One possible configuration for the DISE accompanying the entry force consists of a TROJAN SPIRIT to provide a long haul communications capability, an ASAS workstation for automated intelligence fusion, and a Joint STARS GSM for collateral broadcast intelligence capability. In another configuration, the DISE could consist of a manportable tactical satellite terminal, a laptop computer running ASAS software, and a UAV remote video terminal (RVT). The exact configuration of a DISE is tactically tailored based on METT-T.
Deploying forces will make either an unopposed or forcible entry. The commander will rely heavily on intelligence to support the initial lodgement during entry into the AO. He must know what his forces will encounter upon arrival and on the way to achieving initial objectives. If a brigade is the initial entry force, the S2, the battlefield information control center (BICC), and the ACT should deploy with the brigade command element. The S2 and BICC are essential to planning and directing the brigade's IEW support. The ACT from the brigade's DS MI company is equipped with ASAS workstations needed to provide seamless intelligence support to the brigade commander. In the lodgement, the brigade ACT works closely with the DISE of the division assault command post to support IEW operations and facilitate enemy situation development. The brigade commander receives intelligence from the ACT through ASAS workstations in his TOC or mounted in brigade command vehicles.
During combat operations, the ACE is located with the main command post and, if possible, adjacent to the G2 (S2) cell. Connectivity can be established between the ACE and the command post through MSE and local area networks (LANs). Once the ACE becomes operational, the DISE is melded back into the ACE. It is also during this stage that intelligence reaches a crossover point where dependency on top-down intelligence is reduced by intelligence derived from in-theater tactical IEW assets. This transition increases the demands on ACE collection management and technical control as organic collectors become operational.
In OOTW, the ACE may not deploy to the AO. Its deployment is based on METT-T and the ability of split-based intelligence operations to support the commander. The IEW resources provided for an OOTW, such as humanitarian relief, could consist of a maneuver brigade, CI and HUMINT teams from the DS MI company, and an ACT augmented with a TROJAN SPIRIT. In larger operations such as peacekeeping, a division may deploy a DISE to support a division forward command post.
During termination and postconflict operations, the ACE adapts to the changing intelligence requirements of the commander. Because of the possibility of renewed hostilities or other action which could jeopardize military personnel, the commander may place emphasis on indications and warnings (I&W) and force protection products. The ACE must also remain prepared to provide immediate support if combat resumes. ACE readiness includes file maintenance to eliminate unwanted or outdated material accumulated during the operation, and analyst cross-training. The priority for ACE intelligence production efforts may also shift to support postconflict operations such as rebuilding infrastructure, providing medical assistance, and clearing obstacles.
During this stage, the G2 (S2), MI commander, and ACE chief determine the sequence and composition of redeployment. In general, ACE personnel and equipment redeploy in reverse order to which they deployed. A DISE or scaled-down ACE will remain in theater until all forces are withdrawn. As the quantity and availability of IEW resources decrease, the G2 (S2) and ACE must remain proactive in coordinating and planning IEW support to meet the commander's mission. The G2 (S2) and MI commander should also use this time to record lessons learned from the operation and incorporate them into standing operating procedures (SOPs).
During demobilization, RC personnel supporting the ACE are released from active duty. The ACE reestablishes its normal peacetime relationship with RC units.
See FM 34-1, FM 100-5, FM 100-17 for additional information on force projection operations, mobilization, deployment, redeployment, and demobilization.