1997 Congressional Hearings
Intelligence and Security



Mr. Chairmen and members of the Military Procurement and Research and Development Sub-committees, thank you for inviting me to discuss with you the topic of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

My current and recent positions have given me a close-up view of the Department's attempts to satisfy tactical commanders' needs for systems that provide real-time reconnaissance, surveillance, targeting and battle damage assessment information. Although frustrated to some extent by the lack of progress throughout the first half of this decade, I see examples of success in UAV development beginning to occur. These examples include the successful Predator UAV ACTD--conducted by the Army's Intelligence and Security Command for USACOM, the substantial use of UAVs at Fort Irwin--most recently during the Task Force XXI Advanced Warfighting Experiment, and UAV support for commanders in the Bosnian area of operations since July 1995.

First, I should emphasize that we are committed to forging an Army that can conduct prompt and sustained operations on land throughout the entire spectrum of crisis, and to do what needs to be done as part of the joint warfighting team envisioned in Joint and Army Vision 2010. Clearly, this vision mandates the gaining of Information Dominance. It enables us to succeed at projecting and protecting our forces and at dominating maneuver in the area of operations. Our current and planned future tactical reconnaissance capabilities play a critical role in our ability to provide the dynamic situational awareness that enables us to remain fully knowledgeable about our battlespace, while denying any opponent/adversary the same level of knowledge about the battlespace.

Second, a key component of our tactical reconnaissance capabilities and a primary enabler of the Army's patterns of operations as identified in Army Vision 2010 is Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. In the near-term our UAV strategy is designed to build a complementary family of UAVs that will satisfy differing and unique commanders' requirements across echelon and along the operational continuum. Fiscal reality prevents us from developing and fielding this family all at once. Therefore, we have prioritized our efforts. The Army's--and the JROC's--top priority for modernizing the C4ISR system is a tactical UAV for the Brigade Commander. This priority is followed by efforts to support division and corps commanders, and commanders at echelon above corps.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) are emerging as the next generation of Airborne Reconnaissance. Technological advances in aeronautics, electronics, materials, data processing and propulsion are converging to produce a very capable family of UAV systems that will enable the collection and near-real time dissemination of information, while minimizing risk to soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines. The unique ability of UAVs to penetrate hostile airspace and dwell over a target area is considered essential by the Force XXI warfighter and will complement the capabilities of other airborne assets in providing commanders a total battlefield picture.

Equally important is the control and flexibility of UAVs. We are currently developing a family of UAVs that is tactically-oriented, survivable and supportable. This family of UAVs is a primary factor in enabling commanders at every level to control their fight. The Tactical UAV (or Outrider UAV) focuses on the close battle, providing targeting, situation development and battle damage assessment in direct response to the brigade/Task Force (TF) commander. The Air Force-operated Predator UAV focuses on the deep battle, supporting the division out to 150 Km and the Corps battle out to 300 Km. Predator and Global Hawk endurance UAVs will provide the theater commander with wide area surveillance assets that loiter over the battlefield for extended periods of time at greatly extended ranges. Each program brings unique attributes to the battlefield mix, but as a group they will help the Army gain the information dominance that is essential to all patterns of operation. Each will be described separately, but not to be lost in the discussion is that all are necessary, complementary parts of the UAV family.

Tactical UAV

Fielding a tactical UAV to the brigade commander remains the Army's number one C4ISR priority. This priority is in line with the JROC's effort to provide "a dedicated brigade/regimental level (Tactical) UAV system with a day/night imaging capability that delivers timely and accurate targeting and other battlefield information in near-real time...."

The Tactical UAV (Outrider UAV) will provide reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and Battle Damage Assessment beyond the front line of troops out to at least 50 Km from the Ground Control Station. It will be fully interoperable with the Tactical Control System, currently under development, and directly support the maneuver brigade/task force fight. Tactical UAV will provide the front line commander with a view over the next hill with obvious targeting and force protection benefits. It also will replace manpower-intensive and risky front line monitoring systems such as remote sensors and ground-based radars. Furthermore, with its real-time video capability, the Tactical UAV will give tactical ground commanders the capability to visualize more of the battlefield than ever before.

The recent Task Force XXI Advanced Warfighting Experiment (AWE) held at Fort Irwin last month highlighted the criticality of a tactical UAV in support of brigade operations. Preliminary lessons learned about UAVs from the experiment included the demonstration of aerial collection assets' great potential for augmenting organic brigade tactical reconnaissance and the determination that the UAV is the most direct, confirming sensor and targeting tool tied directly to the ground commander. General Hartzog, Commanding General of the Army's Training and Doctrine Command, designated seven "winners" from the AWE; on that list was the tactical UAV.

The following table lists the current TUAV requirements (as validated by the Joint Requirements Oversight Council) and the Army's Close Range UAV requirement. The Army fully supports the TUAV Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) and views it as the most expeditious method to provide brigade commanders with a UAV to satisfy their needs.

Parameter TUAV Requirements

threshold (objective)

Army Close Range UAV Requirements
Cost $350K/$300K N/A
Range 200Km 50Km
Tgt Location Error <100m <100m
Endurance 3 hours (4 hours) 3 hours
Launch/Recovery Unprepared Surface/ Large Deck Amphib Unprepared Surface/ 30mX75mX10m
Mobility 2 HMMWV/1 Trlr 2 HMMWV/1 Trlr
Deployability 1xC-130 1xC-130
Integration EMI/Corrosion Inhibition None
Data Link Analog (Digital) Analog
Payload EO/IR EO/IR
Propulsion Mogas (HFE) Mogas

The requirements for the Tactical UAV were based in large measure on the Army's requirements for a brigade commander's UAV (referred to as the "Close Range" UAV). These brigade commander UAV requirements are founded in operational concepts. For example, 50 km range provides stand-off distance to maintain a launch/recovery area out of range of primary threat artillery. 3 hours on-station endurance is associated with the need to maintain a loitering system during the crucial period of a brigade fight. Mobility and deployability requirements are derived from the need to maintain a force projection capability at the brigade level. The EO/IR payload requirement stems from the lesson learned in combat and other operations that commanders require responsive "eyes-on" capability to take advantage of precision weapons and avoid excessive collateral damage. The requirements associated with propulsion, data link, and target location error are examples of getting the best capability available for a reasonable cost. Finally, the launch/recovery requirement stems primarily from a Navy/Marine Corps need to be able to recover an air vehicle on a large deck amphibious ship without disrupting other flight operations. Although clearly interested in keeping the launch/recovery area as small as possible, the Army has instead emphasized the requirement for an "unprepared landing strip" to avoid, when possible, needing engineer support to build the UAV's launch/recovery area. The Army would prefer to be able to use "soccer field-size" landing areas because of their proliferation throughout the world, but does not feel constrained by that size landing area. Instead, putting a tactical UAV in the hands of commanders and soldiers in the field, as we are doing under the auspices of the Tactical UAV ACTD, will help the Army further define its operational concepts, its requirements, and its UAV tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Tactical UAV Synergy

As field units begin to employ tactical UAVs, tactics, techniques, and procedures are becoming clearer. Synergy between cueing systems, UAVs (as confirming systems), and shooting systems is significantly reducing sensor-to-shooter timelines and ensuring increased "one shot, one kill" situations. The example of teaming brigade-owned UAVs with Air Force Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft highlights this synergy in a joint scenario. UAVs are dispatched to known areas of interest or cover sectors in an economy of force role when other sensors or assets are not available. They provide long-term coverage and datalink the information gathered to the battle command through joint-compatible digital communications. This information enables the ground commander to direct the Air Force CAS aircraft to the enemy force. Through proper use of airspace management procedures (vertical and horizontal separation), the UAVs and Air Force aircraft combine to destroy the threat force. Throughout the joint operation the UAVs update the enemy situation in real-time, assisting in the avoidance of threats and providing information on the current disposition of the target. The UAVs then corroborate pilot reports regarding battle damage assessment from the operation, enabling the ground commander to expeditiously reengage the adversary or recue the UAV to another area or target.

The above example is but one in a continuum of operations that Force XXI and Army After Next forces will conduct. Commanders require systems that exhibit the qualities of adaptability, agility, versatility, and flexibility, whether supporting the main attack on a digitized, lethal battlefield or conducting peacekeeping operations. The Tactical UAV, working with other systems, will offer complementary performance to help ensure mission accomplishment, while saving soldiers' lives.

Predator UAV

The Army concept of UAV operations supporting division and corps commanders includes responsive employment of the Predator UAV system. The Predator UAV, flown by the Air Force, will operate throughout the battlefield area, forward of the line of troops, day and night, and in most weather conditions. It will provide corps and division commanders real­time target acquisition, battle damage assessment, reconnaissance, battlefield surveillance, and detailed information on potential enemy courses of action. The Air Force has indicated its commitment to meeting the Army's command and control timelines for Predator, acknowledging the challenge of "dynamic retasking" (retasking--in a timely manner--the Predator UAV from the unit preplanned in the Air Tasking Order (ATO) to the unit requesting immediate, unplanned support).

The Army currently views responsive and relevant information provided by the Predator UAV as an important part of the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) mix supporting tactical ground force commanders. The Army remains committed to working out, with the other services, the joint concept of operations and joint tactics, techniques and procedures that will enable the Predator UAV to support gaining information dominance on the battlefield.

Global Hawk UAV

High Altitude Endurance (HAE) Global Hawk UAVs are expected to provide imagery support to the Joint Force Commander and theater commander. In addition, the Global Hawk UAV will provide direct imagery information to corps commanders through the Tactical Exploitation System (TES). Availability of these endurance systems to meet tactical ground commanders' battlefield needs will continue to be addressed through joint exercises, simulations, and concept of operations discussions. The Army will continue its efforts, in conjunction with the other Services, to develop coherent operational concepts and tactical procedures that employ UAVs in a complementary manner with each other and with capable and equally necessary manned systems.


Tactical UAV, Predator UAV, and Global Hawk UAV form a complementary, synergistic family of UAVs that will support Army commanders from brigade through JFC. As we pursue this family, though, the Army's priority remains clear--field as quickly as possible a cost-effective, tactical UAV with real-time day/night video capability that is responsive to the brigade commander.

Thank you for the opportunity to provide my views regarding this most important capability of the Force XXI Army.