1997 Congressional Hearings
Intelligence and Security

Adm. Johnson, Gen. Krulak & Secretary Dalton

The Nation’s Force in Readiness -- Forward ...From The Sea


Emerging technology will allow naval forces to employ a wide range of ordnance against targets ashore. Our weapons can be delivered from a variety of platforms, with unprecedented flexibility and lethality. These fires can be launched from well beyond an opponent’s reach. Sea-based engagement permits rapid maneuver and sustained concentration of lethal fires from far less vulnerable positions. Integrating precision fires with extensive command, control, computers, communication, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) will allow us to quickly transmit tasking orders for strike, interdiction, and fire support, to accurately deliver the appropriate ordnance, to conduct timely battle damage assessment, and to reattack when required. In 1996, the Navy’s Cooperative Engagement Capability, which links sea, air, and land sensors to firing platforms for air and missile defense, supported the first-ever successful engagement of an air target that was well beyond a firing unit’s radar horizon. Improvements in Tomahawk cruise missiles and innovations in naval surface fire support and weaponry -- such as the Arsenal Ship and improved munitions, to include the extended range guided munition and a Navy tactical missile system -- hold the potential to increase dramatically the ability to conduct precision-engagement operations.


Readiness for the Future

Future readiness requires investment today. Both the Navy and Marine Corps are planning increases in procurement and research and development accounts to guarantee future readiness. This continues to be dependent on the need for readiness today. New Attack Submarines and San Antonio (LPD 17)-class amphibious ships will replace their aging predecessors in the near term. Next-generation platforms and systems, such as the Surface Combatant of the 21st century (SC 21), MV-22 aircraft, the Joint Strike Fighter , advanced amphibious assault vehicle, and theater missile defense are essential long-term investments. Where considered most cost-efficient, current systems -- such as the AV-8B Harrier aircraft and P-3 Orion aircraft -- are being remanufactured or given service-life extensions. Using the development of Cooperative Engagement Capability and the naval C4I strategy (Copernicus ... Forward), the Department will leverage the capability of all present and future systems. Cost efficiencies also are sought by designing ships with reduced manning requirements, such as the new Arsenal Ship. But whether giving new life to old systems or taking a technological leap into systems of the next century, it is only through proper funding of modernization accounts that naval forces will be able to support the national security and military strategies in the future. However, increases in modernization accounts must come from continued reductions in infrastructure investment and other savings initiatives. The budget constraints challenge us to create and maintain the correct balance between current and future readiness. Both are important and neither can be ignored. The Department believes that within these constraints a correct balance has been attained.



The budget for FY98 marks an important transition year. We will be well embarked on our recapitalization strategy to dedicate the increasing resource levels necessary to provide modern, capable platforms and systems for tomorrow’s Navy-Marine Corps team. At the same time, we will be reaching the end of our projected resource downslope, and will begin maintaining an essentially level fiscal profile beyond FY98. The current budget attempts to negotiate the path from the point Congress will have led us through FY97, through the necessary reforms and efficiencies critical to long-term affordability, and to the continued satisfaction of our core warfighting requirements within the President’s plan for Defense.

Program Summaries

The following programs are key elements in building naval forces capable of protecting U.S. interests around the world today and into the 21st century. They represent an unprioritized, yet integrated, view of the wide range of capabilities necessary for the Navy-Marine Corps team to support and enforce national security objectives.


Shipbuilding and Naval Weapons Programs


Tomahawk Baseline Improvement Program (TBIP): The Tomahawk land-attack missile provides Navy surface combatants and attack submarines with a potent long-range precision strike capability from the sea. The TBIP program was restructured in FY96 into a two-phase program that will provide a technologically advanced, yet lower-cost missile with an initial operating capability in 2000. The Tomahawk Block IV Phase I development provides a comprehensive baseline upgrade to improve system flexibility, responsiveness, accuracy, and lethality. Essential elements of the program include upgrades to the guidance, navigation, control, and mission-computer systems of the missile, along with the associated mission-planning systems and weapons-control systems. Phase I will provide a UHF satellite communication data link to enable the missile to receive in-flight mission reassignment messages, to transfer health and status messages, and to broadcast Battle Damage Indication messages. Phase I also includes the development of an advanced antijam Global Positioning System receiver and antenna system for the missile. The Advanced Tomahawk Weapons Control System and Afloat Planning System will improve tactical responsiveness by allowing for mission-planning and modification afloat, thus reducing mission planning timelines in many scenarios. Concepts for the Tomahawk Block IV Phase II include a seeker, an antiarmor variant, and a possible hard-target-penetration variant.


Integrated Undersea Surveillance System (IUSS): IUSS is comprised of fixed, mobile, and deployable acoustic arrays that provide vital tactical cueing to ASW forces. The IUSS is a model for innovation and the smart use of technology. Work stations, enhanced signal processing, and modern communication technologies enable remote array monitoring, which reduces manpower costs and improves efficiency.

The Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) provides deep-water long-range detection capability. Consolidation of SOSUS by array retermination, remoting, or closure will be complete by FY97. Recent closures include Bermuda, Adak, and Keflavik. All other arrays will remain operational.

The Surveillance Towed-Array Sensor System (SURTASS), a prototype twin- line array, was tested in a variety of locations around the world, with outstanding results. It is far superior to any other shallow-water passive towed-array system. SURTASS processing is being transferred to the AN/SQQ-89 towed-array sonar system to provide an immediate increase in detection capability without the need to modify or procure additional wet-end hardware. The minimum fleet requirement of eight SURTASS ships is funded through the FYDP.

The Fixed Distributed System (FDS) currently is operational and has successfully demonstrated the ability to detect, classify, and track quiet submarines. The outstanding results achieved to date validate the fact that acoustic ASW remains feasible against advanced-capability nuclear and diesel-electric submarines. New fiber-optic technologies, algorithms, and enhanced signal processing are enabling exploitation of weak signals in environments of high background noise and provide timely and accurate detection and track data to tactical assets.

The Low-Frequency Active (LFA) system has detected submarines at long ranges. The first LFA ship, TAGOS 23, is under construction. In the interim, a leased ship, Cory Chouest, is being used as a fleet asset to test and validate LFA technologies. In addition, compact acoustic source technologies are under development that will provide a 50% reduction in weight and power requirements. Successful maturing of these technologies will allow LFA-type arrays to be deployed from existing TAGOS 19-class vessels.

The Advanced Deployable System is a theater-deliverable acoustic surveillance system that will provide continuous acoustic coverage over vast ocean areas for an extended period. This is a theater-surveillance asset that will provide unique surveillance information to tactical forces. It will be capable of detecting quiet nuclear submarines, diesel-electric submarines on the battery, ships exiting or entering port, or mine-laying operations. The importance of this portable capability will intensify as our surveillance requirements increase, owing to the Navy’s focus on the littorals, the growing popularity of diesel submarines, and the downsizing of our own force.

The current IUSS program satisfies all military requirements and has been designed to accommodate future growth and capability expansion affordably, as new technologies appear and mature.

Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUV): The Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) program will extend knowledge and control of the undersea battlespace through the employment of clandestine off-board sensors. Although significant progress is being made with onboard sensors, it is clearly preferable to have an off-board sensor to accurately image tethered, volume, and bottom mines. Knowledge of the full dimension of the mine threat, without exposing reconnaissance platforms, is vital to exploiting the tactical benefits of maneuver warfare.


Aviation Weapons Programs

P-3C Orion: The P-3C Sustained Readiness Program and Service Life Extension Program will extend the operational service and fatigue life of existing airframes to approximately 48 years, thereby delaying the requirement for delivery of a follow-on production aircraft until 2015. The Antisurface Warfare Improvement Program enhances the aircraft’s ability to perform both autonomous and joint battle group missions in the littorals. Improvements will allow the P-3C to collect, correlate, and confirm tactical data and transmit information and imagery to the Joint Task Force Commander in near-real time. Both the active and reserve P-3C fleets are being converted to a common avionics force (Update III) that consolidates maintenance, improves training efficiency, reduces long term logistic support costs, and maximizes reserve forces participation.


Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): Naval Forces currently are employing the Pioneer UAV system in support of a broad array of expeditionary operations, such as reconnaissance and intelligence support in Bosnia. Pioneer's potential replacement as the tactical UAV is "Outrider." It currently is in the advanced concept technical demonstration phase of development. The new tactical control system will enable broad UAV interoperability and connectivity to the naval command, control, computers, communications, and intelligence (C4I) architecture.

Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System (ATARS): As the only manned tactical reconnaissance system for naval combat aircraft currently under development, the ATARS will provide a major increase in timely imagery intelligence information to the theater, operational, and tactical commanders. The digital data-link capability of the system will allow all levels of command to receive time-sensitive imagery simultaneously, providing real-time imagery for accurate intelligence preparation of the battlefield and pre-strike and post-strike planning and analysis. ATARS is a suite of sensors and data-link pods that will be installed in the F/A-18D and associated ground stations. When fully operational, ATARS will be joint data-link capable and will provide support to all services. Due for delivery in FY98, ATARS will provide high-resolution, real/near-real time, digital imagery, day and night, in all weather conditions -- through infrared, electro-optical and synthetic aperture radar sensors. The imagery will be digitally linked via the Joint Services Imagery Processing System and Tactical Exploitation Groups. The F/A-18F will field reconnaissance capabilities which will capitalize on ATARS off-the-shelf advances.

Command and Control and Other Programs

Navy-Marine Corps C4ISR: The naval command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) vision, called Copernicus...Forward, is designed to support joint and naval warfighting strategies. It enables the Navy-Marine Corps team to expand, adapt, and integrate their C4ISR capabilities to meet the demands of the new strategic environment, emerging operational concepts, and evolving information technologies. While this vision provides a general naval approach to the implementation of Copernicus...Forward, there are, by necessity, unique requirements for Navy and Marine Corps application which make it useful to address these service-unique features in separate development and implementation concepts. Copernicus...Forward defines four essential functions of C4I that are being executed and implemented successfully in the fleet: connectivity; common tactical picture; sensor-to-shooter; and information warfare. The goal in every case is achieving technical and operational interoperability with the joint Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment as rapidly as possible. Some of the C4I systems now operational within the Navy or Marine Corps or under evaluation are highlighted below:

· Connectivity -- The pipes that carry the information to the warfighter, to include:

Þ Joint Maritime Communications Strategy (JMCOMS) is leveraging commercial technology to reduce costs and improve bandwidth utilization. JMCOMS consists of three technical thrust areas: the Automated Data Network System (ADNS), a secure, interoperable, multimedia intelligent network management system; the Automated Modular Programmable "Slice" Radio, a programmable commercial hardware technology used with an integrated antenna to reduce topside space and weight that covers all frequencies up to 2 GHz; and the Integrated Terminal Program (ITP), a multiband satellite communications terminal covering the frequencies above 2 GHz. ITP exploits commercial technology to reduce costs by using common electronics, components, and antenna. Two major programs within JMCOMS are the Global Broadcast Service (GBS) and Challenge Athena.

Þ Global Broadcast Service (GBS) is a revolutionary advancement in joint communications, providing high-speed one-way broadcast, video and data service. It provides high data rate service to many users simultaneously, using point-to-multipoint protocols. GBS becomes operational in February 1998, with the launch of the UFO-8 satellite.

Þ Challenge Athena is a Navy program to provide leased commercial wideband satellite communications services to the ships. Challenge Athena supports near real-time national imagery dissemination for precision targeting, mission planning, and battle damage assessment; national intelligence data-base connectivity; multiple-line telephone connectivity; video teleconferencing, teletraining, and telemedicine; tactical and public-affairs imagery dissemination; and logistic support to numerous other high-volume data systems.

Þ Base-Level Information Infrastructure (BLII) provides the Navy and Marine Corps sustaining base connectivity to the Defense Information Systems Network (DISN). It will modernize shore-based switches and cable plants and shipboard LANS to facilitate seamless connectivity and information flow.

Þ Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) is a family of VHF-FM, line-of-sight radios built around a common receiver-transmitter. SINCGARS provides the backbone for the single-channel radio net that will be used by all Marine Corps command-and-control and fire-support systems.

Þ Automated Digital Network System (ADNS) provides timely data delivery service to or from all data user resources. The development of ADNS is based on the incorporation of commercial and government off-the-shelf hardware and software. Three prototype systems are installed in two surface ships and a telecommunications station for testing during FY97.

Þ AN/PSC-5 Enhanced Manpack UHF Terminal (EMUT) is a lightweight, Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA), manpack, line-of-sight and tactical satellite communications terminal that will serve as a primary command-and-control single-channel radio for MAGTFs and their elements. Employed down to the battalion level, it provides range extension and reliability. It will be used to transmit intelligence traffic, interface with SINCGARS waveforms, and transmit/receive command-and-control traffic. Initial operational capability will be achieved in early FY98.

Þ Other Marine Corps C4 Programs: Several other important programs in which the Marine Corps is an active participant are in the engineering, manufacture, and development stage, and will increase capabilities in numerous areas. The SHF Tri-Band Advanced Range Extension Terminal (STAR-T), the Secure Mobile Anti-jam Reliable Tactical Terminal (SMART-T), the Digital Technical Control Facility, and the Tactical Data Network System are some of the systems that will improve the connectivity and interoperability of our communications systems internally as well as externally, and in some cases, greatly improve the mobility of our forces. .

· Common Tactical Picture (CTP) -- The knowledge and situational awareness that enhances combat identification, force coordination, and command and control. Associated programs include: Þ Global Command-and-Control System (GCCS) is the single most important command-and-control initiative in the joint arena today. It is the backbone of the "C4I for the Warrior" concept. GCCS is a joint system that has reached its initial operating capability, replacing the Worldwide Military Command-and-Control System (WWMCCS), and will expand with applications across all functional areas. Full replacement of current WWMCCS capabilities was completed this year, ensuring a strong force deployment planning and execution command-and-control system.

Þ Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS) is the core program of the Navy and Marine Corps’ part of the Global Command and Control System (GCCS). JMCIS, the first Copernican program initiated six years ago, combined numerous programs to provide the warfighter a common tactical picture on a common work station. JMCIS provides timely, accurate, and complete all-source C4ISR information management, display, and dissemination capability for warfare mission assessment, planning, and execution. JMCIS is compliant with the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment and incorporates the MAGTF C4I software baseline.

Þ Advanced Combat Direction System (ACDS) is a centralized, automated command and control system, collecting and correlating combat information. It upgrades the Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) for non-Aegis surface warships, aircraft carriers, and amphibious ships. A core component of non-Aegis combat systems, ACDS provides the capability to identify and classify targets as friendly or hostile, prioritize and conduct engagements, vector interceptor aircraft to targets, and exchange targeting information and engagement orders within the battle group and among different service components in the joint theater of operations.

Þ Tactical Combat Operations (TCO) System: The TCO System is an automated capability for processing battlefield information. Achieving its initial operating capability in FY96 with a purchase of 334 units, the TCO System provides the Marines the same automated operations system currently used by the Navy. This system is built around JMCIS, which brings a major increase in interoperability to the services. Currently, the Marine expeditionary force and Marine expeditionary unit headquarters element have an interim capability, with a full operational capability expected at the end of FY98.

Þ SABER provides situational awareness and automatic GPS position reporting for tactical mobile units. SABER information is injected directly into the JMCIS picture.

· Sensor-to-Shooter -- The process by which connectivity and the common tactical picture combine to provide near real-time targeting information to the shooter, including:

Þ Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC): The increased complexity of emerging threats in the air defense arena makes it necessary to link geographically dispersed sensors of differing capability with all potential firing platforms. CEC harnesses the technology, known as sensor netting, that makes this possible. With CEC, it appears to each shooter’s combat system as if every netted sensor is that unit’s own sensor. Engagement using remotely provided track data is possible for the first time. In addition, the ability to develop composite tracks means that every participating unit has an identical, real-time picture of the battle space, as well as identical identification information. With the addition of the airborne element of CEC in the E-2C Hawkeye, scheduled for FY99, the reach of CEC will be dramatically increased, and the potential for overland engagement of cruise missiles greatly advanced. CEC technology continues to mature. In January and February 1996, CEC was an integral part of the Cruise Missile Defense Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration, known as "Mountain Top," in which the Navy demonstrated, for the first time, an over-the-horizon engagement of a cruise missile through the use of remotely located sensors and illuminators on a simulated airborne platform. Subsequently, in September 1996, the initial operational capability of the first shipborne system was attained. Also during FY96, the Army and Air Force each undertook extensive studies aimed at determining the potential application of CEC to their service-unique systems.

Þ Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD): Sea-based TBMD is considered essential to protect expeditionary, forward-deployed elements of our armed forces and coalition allies, including population centers. The Navy Area TBMD System, which will field a user operational evaluation system capability in FY99, is critical to support littoral warfare and provides for engagement of theater ballistic missiles (TBMs) in the terminal phase of flight. It serves to protect the nation’s forcible-entry capability from a TBM attack. The Navy Theater-Wide TBMD System will add ascent and mid-course intercept capability, providing defense of the theater of operations. The Navy TBMD will be: able to operate independently of constraints; highly survivable; rapidly relocatable; self-sustainable; and dramatically cost effective, by leveraging existing capabilities and engineering bases. Both programs, as currently designed, are compliant with the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

Þ Marine Corps Aviation C4 Improvements: Quantum improvements continue in systems that support the aviation combat element of the MAGTF. Phase One’s initial operational capability (IOC) of the Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) occurred in FY96, and is the integrating link between the aviation element command and control (C2) and the MAGTF’s C2. The ATACC provides planners and operators with the automated assistance needed to effectively supervise, coordinate, and direct the execution and planning of all MAGTF tactical operations. IOCs also were met during the year for the Improved Direct Air Support Central (IDASC) Product Improvement Program (PIP) and the Tactical Air Operations Center (TAOC). The ATACC provides great enhancements for interoperability with the Navy’s Joint Maritime Command Information System and the Air Force’s Contingency Theater Automated Planning System, while mobility is considered the key feature in the IDASC PIP.

Þ Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS): Critical to the ability of Navy tactical aircraft, ships, and Marine air-command-and-control systems to operate in a joint environment, JTIDS is an advanced radio system that provides secure, jam-resistant information distribution, position location, and identification capabilities in an integrated form for tactical military operations. Nineteen have been acquired to date, with five more scheduled for FY97. A prototype system for High Mobility Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)-mounted modular JTIDS terminal currently is in the engineering and demonstration stage. JTIDS will be integrated into aircraft carriers, surface warships, and amphibious assault ships, F-14D and E-2C aircraft, the Marine Corps Tactical Air Operations Center and Tactical Air Command Center. In the future, surface ships, submarines, and F/A-18 aircraft will receive JTIDS functionality via a smaller, lighter, less-costly version of JTIDS still under development. In addition, JTIDS has been identified as the preferred link for Theater Ballistic Missile Defense programs.

Þ Marine Corps Fire Support C4 Improvements: The Fire Support Command and Control System (FSC2S) is an interim system providing semiautomated tactical fire support and technical artillery fire-control functions for MAGTF operations. The follow-on Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System, which will completely automate fire support C2, is scheduled for fielding in FY98. The Target Location, Designation, and Hand-Off (TLDH) is a man-portable tool for fire support observers and controllers to locate targets with GPS accuracy, designate them with a coded laser as appropriate, and pass them to the appropriate fire-support system for resolution. This is a key enabling capability, which will maximize the effectiveness of supporting fires by accommodating current and planned laser-seeking precision-guided munitions. TLDH will provide the interface with the Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System and with digital delivery systems on board aircraft, and will use existing and planned communication assets for message transmission and receipt.

Þ Advanced Tomahawk Weapon Control System (ATWCS) is a significant upgrade to the current system, and will reduce overall reaction time, enhance training capabilities at all levels, reduce operator workload, and improve Tomahawk strike effectiveness. Improvements will include software, hardware, and firmware modifications that will introduce new capabilities, such as contingency-strike operations planning, embedded training at all levels, and a simplified man-machine interface. ATWCS incorporates an open architecture to provide for future growth, eliminates stand-alone Tomahawk desk-top computers, and enhances command and control interoperability.

· Information Warfare (IW) -- Actions taken to access or affect information and information systems, while defending one’s own systems. The goal of these activities is to achieve information superiority, the degree of dominance in the information domain that permits the conduct of operations without effective opposition. Programs supporting this objective include:

Þ Common High Band Data Link-Shipboard Terminal (CHBDL-ST) provides a common data terminal for the receipt of signal and intelligence data from remote sensors and the transmission of link and sensor control data to airborne platforms. CHBDL-ST will interface with shipboard processors of the Joint Services Imagery Processing System-Navy (JSIPS-N) and the Battle Group Passive Horizon Extension System-Surface Terminal (BGPHES-ST). CHBDL-ST will process link data from BGPHES or Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance (ATARS) aircraft configured with modular interoperability data link terminals.

Þ Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System (JDISS): As a segment of JMCIS, JDISS provides common intelligence, communication, and office automation applications not only for U.S. naval and joint operations, but NATO and coalition operations as well. JDISS provides a responsive, secure exchange between and among intelligence centers and operational commanders, including access to national and theater data bases, and imagery. JDISS gives commanders what they need, when they need it, by providing "demand pull" as well as "smart push" intelligence, and delivers a broad base of training and user support to Fleet Commanders and naval components worldwide who operate in the joint domain.

Þ Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) is an all-source fusion center that is the hub of the Marine air-ground intelligence system. Operational testing of the system occurred during the year, with an initial operational capability expected in FY97. It is a completely mobile system with multiple analyst work stations, which can be configured for the higher commands or down to the battalions and squadrons. IAS hosts the Secondary Imagery Dissemination System and is able to link with other systems, such as Department of Defense Intelligence Information Systems.

Þ Tactical Intelligence Information Exchange Subsystem-Phase II (TACINTEL II+) is a computer-based message communication system for automatic receipt and transmission of special intelligence (SI) and special compartmented information (SCI) messages geared primarily to contact reports and other tactically useful information. TACINTEL II+ implements the Copernicus vision for joint C4I interoperability using open-architecture standards. The full capability will include voice, message, and data transfer among SCI-capable ships and aircraft, with gateways to shore nodes.

Þ MAGTF Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS): Currently undergoing an Operational Assessment with the 15th and 26th Marine Expeditionary Units, the manpack SIDS device provides the capability to electronically collect, manipulate, transmit, and receive imagery products throughout the MAGTF, as well as to adjacent, higher, and external commands and other theater commands, and to receive secondary national collector’s imagery. The MAGTF SIDS software is resident in all versions of the Intelligence Analysis System . An initial buy of ten occurred in FY96 with an initial operating capability expected in FY97.

Þ Battle Group Passive Horizon Extension System-Surface Terminal (BGPHES-ST) extends the battle group’s line-of-site radio horizon and enhances joint interoperability by controlling remote sensors in an aircraft’s sensor payload to relay radio transmissions to the ship’s surface terminal via the Common High Bandwidth Data Link (CHBDL). The primary aircraft employed for this task is the Navy’s ES-3A Viking; additionally, BGPHES will be interoperable with the Air Force’s U-2 reconnaissance aircraft.

Þ Marine Corps Intelligence Programs: The Marine Corps' research, development, and acquisition of tactical intelligence systems, as well as aggressive manpower and training initiatives, continue to provide MAGTF commanders and their staffs with enhanced intelligence support. In 1996, the Navy-Marine Intelligence Training Center graduated its first class of multidisciplined MAGTF intelligence officers. MAGTF intelligence and force-protection capabilities will be strengthened with the creation in FY97 of the Marine Corps’ first Counterintelligence/Human Intelligence Company, by consolidating into one unit the existing Marine Expeditionary Force Counterintelligence Team and Interrogator-Translator Team personnel and equipment assets. Under the joint umbrella, the Marine Corps continues to install the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS) at its major bases and the Marine Corps Intelligence Activity, to gain access to the national intelligence community. Improvements in tactical intelligence capabilities are being addressed through research, development, test, and evaluation and procurement investment in programs within the Joint Military Intelligence Program and Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities. The Marine Corps is addressing shortfalls in its imagery intelligence capabilities. The Joint Services Imagery Processing System National Input Segment provides deployed Marine forces with national imagery support. In addition, each MEF will receive a Tactical Exploitation Group to receive, process, and disseminate imagery from F/A-18D ATARS-equipped aircraft, and imagery downlinked from UAVs and U-2s, as well as other theater and national collectors. The Marine Corps also is completing acquisition of a manpacked digital camera and secondary imagery dissemination systems, to enhance tactical access to imagery and imagery-derived products. Marine Corps signals intelligence (SIGINT) improvements include procurement of the Radio Reconnaissance Equipment Program SIGINT Suite-1 and product-improvement upgrades to the Mobile Electronic Warfare Support System, the Technical Control and Analysis Center, and the Team Portable COMINT System. We are also pursuing systems that will help the Marine Corps benefit from the latest commercial technology and maintain our signal exploitation advantage over potential adversaries, in projects such as the Navy's Cryptologic Carry-On Program and the Marine Corps/NSA Radio Battalion Modernization and Concept Exploration Project.

Þ Information Warfare (IW) Education and Training. In FY99, the Department of the Navy will reassess its priorities to further improve Defensive IW readiness, in response to the Naval Research Advisory Committee recommendations. Education and training are critical to IW awareness, and the Navy is the joint lead for IW training. IW education and training is conducted at Naval Telecommunications Training Center Corry Station, Florida, at the Fleet IW Center, and at the Naval Postgraduate School.