TSM Notes

 TRADOC System Manager All-Source Analysis System

by Colonel Jerry V. Proctor

The All-Source Analysis System (ASAS), the “Military Intelligence flagship system,” has a whole series of firsts associated with it. As the first Army Battlefield Control System (ABCS) fully fielded and the most mature system, it has a lot about which to brag. However, when the first is associated with software, being first wears thin quickly and the being newer takes on more meaning. Yes, ASAS was first in fielding. However it now is getting older and in need of an upgrade. TEAM ASAS is doing just that. The most visible upgrade activity is the testing of the new Block II Remote Workstation (RWS).

This new RWS will bear little resemblance to its Block I predecessor. The new high-powered Common Hardware and Software (CHS) II Ultra Computing Unit processors will host the new RWS. It will have a Windows NTŪ look and feel. It will do elementary correlation, very powerful database functions (using OracleTM, and soon will be fully interoperable with Modernized Intelligence Database (MIDB). It will have some collection management functionality, be able to work with the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) systems, and will have expanded graphics capabilities. The 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) (4ID(M)), the test unit, likes the system very much. Additionally, it will have all ABCS common upgrades such as:

The MIDB makes it fully joint.

In order to get this very capable new RWS to the field as soon as possible, TEAM ASAS planned, and conducted the first operational test of an Army Category 1 (highest priority acquisition) system during a full corps Warfighter exercise. In the past, there were two absolute rules regarding operational tests and Warfighters. First, we only conduct operational tests in isolated, fully controlled test environments where the testers, evaluators, and data collectors can trace a digit from inception to completion. This is so that we can specifically trace any faults of the system. Unless we can completely control the environment, there can be no operational test. The second rule is that no commander can allow the addition of any internal event to a Warfighter exercise. Warfighters are the ultimate graded event for a major unit. To add complexity (such as an operational test) on top of an already high adventure event only makes the situation more difficult.

ASAS violated both rules. With great cooperation from the testing and evaluation community, TEAM ASAS coordinated to conduct its operational test for the RWS during a Warfighter. The designated test unit, 4ID(M) had too many other commitments so the most logical time and place to conduct the test was during the Warfighter. With tremendous hard work and exemplary cooperation from all, the ASAS RWS conducted its operational test during the December 1998 III Corps Warfighter exercise.

 We could not meet all the test requirements with this event. We will conduct a second scaled-down, brigade-only stand-alone test in March to finish all the test requirements. However, the first operational test was a superior success. The fine soldiers and leaders of the 4ID(M) performed magnificently and the entire MI community owes them a debt of gratitude for their outstanding performance.

The test results are not in yet and it would be premature to predict the results. However, ASAS provided a service to all ABCS systems by being the first to conduct a test this way, which clearly is the way of the future. Another blue ribbon for ASAS!

For more information about the RWS and the operational test, please contact us at the address below. You can also visit the TSM ASAS web page http://www.tsm asas.army.mil.

Colonel Jerry Proctor is the TSM ASAS and the Deputy TSM is Mr. Michael Strack. Readers can E-mail them at proctorj1@ huachuca-emh1.army.mil and strackm@ huachuca-emh1.army.mil. You can reach them telephonically at (520) 533-3504/7 or DSN 821-3504/7.

TRADOC System Manager Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Aerial Common Sensor

by Colonel William M. Knarr, Jr.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle       Systems

The Close-Range Tactical UAV (CR-TUAV) is a ground maneuver-brigade commander’s UAV...as a command and control enabler for tactical decision-making, it [the UAV] is the commander’s “dominant eye,” it allows him to shape the Army XXI battlefield to ensure mission success.

—CR-TUAV Operational Requirements Document (ORD), 25 February 1999

On 16 October 1998, the Train- ing and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Chief of Staff, Major General Charles W. Thomas, approved the establishment of a Tier One integrated concept team (ICT) for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The primary purpose for the ICT is to coordinate UAV development and missions and UAV payloads. The ICT process will capitalize on the intense community interest in UAVs and the “smorgasbord” of payloads that are readily adaptable to a UAV. The final draft ICT charter, currently under review, will be available in late February. My goal is to forward the membership-approved final version to TRADOC by early March.

The ORD is undergoing review at the Joint Staff and in the theaters. In March, we expect an acquisition decision by the Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) to either continue with Outrider or pursue a flyoff against the CR-TUAV requirements. You may recall that Outrider participated in a 26-month Advance Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) concluding on 30 June 1998 with a military utility assessment. A number of lessons learned from the program helped us refine the CR-TUAV ORD.

In December 1998, I had an opportunity to brief the Chief of Staff of the Army, General Dennis J. Reimer, on the placement of a Hunter Short-Range Tactical UAV system at a combat training center (CTC). In November 1998, he asked TRADOC for a recommendation on whether the Army should field a Hunter system to the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, or to the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk, Louisiana. After briefing Major General Charles Thomas and General Creighton Abrams, we met with General Reimer and representatives from the Department of the Army (DA) staff and U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM), and recommended that we field the system to JRTC.

The primary purpose of fielding the Hunter system to JRTC is to train the force on UAVs. As you probably know, the 15th Military Intelligence Battalion has been extremely successful providing UAV support to the mechanized forces at Fort Hood and NTC. As an alternative to NTC, JRTC offers a number of benefits. JRTC supports training in a low- to mid-intensity conflict scenario. As such, it provides an alternative mission and terrain environment to support the development of UAV tactics, techniques, and procedures. This initiative positions UAVs to support light forces, the Strike Force, mission rehearsal exercises, and the upcoming Joint Contingency Force Advanced Warfighting Experiment. Additionally, it offers UAV operators an assignment opportunity other than Fort Huachuca, Arizona, and Fort Hood, Texas. General Reimer approved the recommendation to field a system to JRTC. The UAV system will be operational to support brigade-level operations in June of this year.

Manned Airborne Reconnaissance Systems

We are now beginning the transition of current systems into a single flexible and modular system that will be critical to providing information dominance in Force XXI and beyond—the Aerial Common Sensor (ACS). At the end of 1994, we retired the last Guardrail V system from the inventory after more than 15 years of service. The Guardrail Common Sensor (GRCS) System 1, which brought a precision signals intelligence (SIGINT) targeting capability to XVIII Corps for the first time, replaced the Guardrail V. The same year saw the Crazy Horse system transferred from the active force to the Reserve Component after ten years of continuous service in Central and South America. In 1996, we replaced the last of the 30-year-old Mohawk aircraft in Korea with the Airborne Reconnaissance Low–Multifunction (ARL-M) aircraft equipped with moving target indicator (MTI) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Three ARL-M aircraft of the 3d MI Battalion, 501st MI Brigade, are now providing the same support in Korea previously provided by Mohawks.

In 1999, we will field two additional ARL-M aircraft to the 204th MI Battalion, 513th MI Brigade. This will make the 204th much more capable of meeting its wide variety of missions in support of U.S. Southern Command, U.S. European Command, and U.S. Central Command. These ARL-M systems will bring the MTI/SAR radar capability, advanced electro-optical imaging systems, and the Superhawk airborne signals intelligence (SIGINT) system to the 204th for the first time. The imagery-only ARL-I aircraft, currently located with the 204th, will then begin an upgrade to ARL-M configuration that will be complete in fiscal year 2000 (FY00). We will upgrade the ARL-M aircraft in Korea in 1999 by adding a Tactical Common Datalink (TCDL). This capability will allow them to downlink the entire radar picture into the 3d MI Battalion’s GRCS Integrated Processing Facility for cross-cueing with the GRCS system.

 The most exciting development on the horizon in the GRCS arena is the upcoming fielding of GRCS System 2. The Project Manager, Aerial Common Sensor (PM ACS) recently took conditional delivery of the system, and is now doing the final integration of some advanced capabilities. When delivered to III Corps in 3Q FY00, this system will replace the 15th MI Battalion’s current Improved Guardrail V system. The GRCS System 2 is the world’s most sophisticated airborne SIGINT system. It will provide a precision SIGINT targeting capability to III Corps for the first time. It will also provide a direct aircraft-to-satellite relay (DASR) capability that will eliminate the requirement for any type of ground processing or relay station in the forward area.

The fielded GRCS Systems will also receive a number of upgrades in 1999. We are beginning a transition away from the “mobile field station” architecture based on 40-foot vans, and moving toward a HMMWV- (high-mobility multi- purpose wheeled vehicle) based architecture that is more mobile and scaleable. The first step was the fielding of a HMMWV shelter with the capability to interoperate with selected joint service airborne SIGINT systems. This capability went to the 1st MI Battalion, 205th MI Brigade, in 1998; its scheduled fielding to Korea and to FORSCOM is in 1999. The second step is to field a HMMWV-based shelter to replace the existing communications and reporting equipment. Beginning in 1999, we will field three of these shelters to the fielded GRCS systems in Europe, Korea, and FORSCOM. The final step is to replace completely the existing Integrated Processing Facilities (IPFs) with a set of HMMWV-based shelters known as a Mini-IPF.

In cooperation with U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM), and leveraging technology and funding from the Precision SIGINT Targeting ACTD, PM ACS is now integrating hardware into an S-280 shelter that will serve as a test bed for the mini-IPF concept. One of the two mini-IPFs scheduled for completion in FY00 will eventually replace this hardware, known as the Guardrail Relay Facility (GRF).

All of these upgrades are stepping stones toward our future integrated airborne reconnaissance system—Aerial Common Sensor. The ORD for this system gained approval in October 1997. We are now working with a variety of agencies on a study to determine the best way to integrate existing and emerging technology into a system that will provide the correct mix of manned and unmanned platforms linked to the future Army ground- based processing architecture. The ACS system will be interoperable with other intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance assets at all echelons, and comply with the emerging Distributed Common Ground Stations (DCGS) and Unified Cryptologic Architecture (UCA) standards. Capitalizing on the successes of GRCS and ARL, Aerial Common Sensor will meet field commanders’ needs in 2010 and beyond.

Colonel Bill Knarr is the Training and Doctrine Command System Manager (TSM) for the UAV and ACS (TSM UAV/ACS). Readers can reach him via E-mail at [email protected] and by telephone at (520) 533-2165 and DSN 821-2165.