All-Source Analysis System
by Lieutenant Colonel Gregory J. Fritz and Lieutenant Colonel Michael E. Montie (USA, Retired)
The All-Source Analysis System (ASAS) is the Armys flagship tactical intelligence fusion and dissemination system. It serves as the ground commanders all-source central processing unit for compart- mented and collateral information received from intelligence collection systems and front-line soldiers. ASAS provides commanders and staffs from echelons above corps (EAC) through battalion with automated, intelligence information-system support and, using the processed intelligence, creates a common understanding of the enemy and terrain on the battlefield.
ASAS Block II Development
ASAS, the primary command and control (C2) system for the Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) functional area of the Army Battle Command System (ABCS), is one of four programs under the oversight of the Project Manager, Intelligence Fusion. The Block I ASAS program provided the first generation of intelligence automation capability to the user. The current Block II program is developing a far more capable second- generation suite of systems. ASAS Block IIs design provides, in three phases, a suite of modular systems developed under a common architecture and compliant with the Common Operating Environment (COE) of the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII).
The first phase of Block II developed the second-generation Capa- bility Package Single Source (CPSS) software system. In Phase 2, the second-generation (v3) Re- mote Workstation (RWS) was developed, and is now under pre- paration for operational testing. ASAS Block II system currently is in Phase 3, developing the second-generation All-Source software system for the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) (4ID(M)), the First Digitized Division (FDD). The Block II RWSv3 successfully participated as the brigades baseline ASAS in last years Task Force XXI (TF XXI) Advanced Warfight- ing Experiment (AWE), and as the brigade and division baseline for the Division XXI AWE (DAWE) completed in November 1997. ASAS Block II systems will form the intelligence baseline for the FDD.
The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) developed the COE to serve several purposes. DISA describes the COE as a mission- and application- independent construct that defines an architecture, an approach to interoperability, a collection of reusable software, a software infrastructure, and a set of guidelines and standards. In fiscal year 1996 (FY96), the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (ASD C3I) directed that Department of Defense (DOD) C2 achieve full compliance with the COE to produce an environment which minimizes system development costs and interoperability issues.
Three software layers comprise the COE: the Kernel layer, the Infrastructure Services (data exchange) (ISDE) layer, and the Common Support Applications (CSA) layer. Individual system programs such as ASAS develop and integrate a Mission Applications (MA) layer that uses the three common layers to support the systems mission-specific functional capabilities. DISA has published a COE Integration and Run Time Specification (IRTS) that provides the guidelines needed by application system developers to ensure their systems integrate with the COE common layers.
The many DOD systems that must operate in compliance with the COE have been under development for varying periods. Some systems, such as ASAS, are quite mature. We must modify them technically in significant ways and at significant expenseto achieve full COE compliance. While this is a short-term expense, the long-term ease of operation for the users ensures the investment is cost-effective.
To accommodate the reality of budget limitations, DISA has de- fined eight levels of run-time environment compliance to allow systems to achieve compliance in an orderly, efficient manner. These levels of compliance are for stan- dards, network, workstation, boot- strap, minimal COE compliance, intermediate COE compliance (Level 6), interoperable compli- ance (Level 7), and full COE compliance (Level 8). On 4 May 1998, ASAS became the first Army system conditionally certified as having achieved intermediate COE compliance (Level 6).
Human-computer interfaces with a common look and feel have been mandated to ensure that operation of ABCS systems (and other COE-compliant systems) is as standardized as possible for the user. Both UNIXTM and Windows NTŪ implementations should be in place by the time the Army has outfitted the FDD.
As with all other digital systems, ASAS must ensure that its systems are free of the Year 2000 (Y2K) anomaly created by the use of two digits to express the calendar year in system software. ASAS Block II systems are under development with Y2K-compliant software; they are tested routinely to ensure that no anomalies are included inadvertently as other software modules are incorporated. The current defining documents for Y2K testing and compliance are the Army Tactical Command and Control System Criteria for Y2K Testing, and the U.S. Army Year 2000 (Y2K) Action Plan Revision II.
For ASAS Block I systems now in the field, upgrades are underway. The Intelligence Fusion Program Management Office (IF PMO) is carrying out a hardware-software upgrade program for the Block I AN/TYQ-40 Communications Control Set (CCS). This upgrade will be completed during the first quarter fiscal year 1999 (1QFY99). The ASAS Block I Single-Source, All-Source, and RWS software packages are receiving upgrades from the U.S. Army Commun- ications-Electronics Command (CECOM) Software Engineering Center. The scheduled completion for these upgrades is by the end of 2QFY99. Upgrades for the Block I Compartmented ASAS Message Processing System (CAMPS) will be in place by the end of 3QFY99.
First Digital Division
The Army has committed to the transformation of the 4ID(M) into the FDD by the completion of FY00. The transformed division will participate in the FDD Digitized Capstone Exercise (DCX) during the year 2000. The FDD will contain a full complement of digitized ABCS functional systems, including
To prepare for operational capability in the FDD, ASAS has maintained a system in the Central Technical Support Facility (CTSF) at Fort Hood, Texas. CTSF has served as an outstanding experimental mechanism for testing interoperability of ABCS component systems, and suggesting solutions to the problems identified before the tactical units receive the systems for AWEs.
ASAS participation in the Task Force XXI and Division XXI AWEs has served as an extremely useful assessment and validation mechanism for ASAS products. The AWEs (and preparation for them) provided an environment for close and continuous interaction between the developer-contractor team and the user. This interaction assured that technical and training issues were resolved efficiently while still maintaining configuration control of a system scheduled for Army-wide fielding. The practically flawless performance of the RWS- v3 throughout the DAWE was a testament to the effectiveness of the process.
In December, the RWSv3 will undergo operational testing. The Warfighter Rapid Acquisition Pro- gram (WRAP) candidate, the Analy- sis and Control Team (ACT), may undergo testing at the same time. The ACT will serve as the brigade-level intelligence analysis facility.
In support of Army light forces, the ASAS program now experiments with a laptop-based system that will replace the current fielded prototypes with a system that fully complies with the standards and interoperability requirements of the ASAS workstation-based system. As a surrogate, units used ASAS RWSv3-based systems during the Rapid Force Projection Initiative (RFPI) conducted this spring at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, and Fort Benning, Georgia.
Joint and Combined Interoperability
Ensuring that ASAS interoper- ates with other Army systems is not an acceptable end state, because Army units participate jointly with forces and systems from other Services and agencies. In addition, Army forces operate in combination with other elements of coalition forces. This requires that ASAS achieve a high degree of joint and combined interoperability.
Since the United States must be prepared to engage in combat operations at any time, it does not suffice for all programs and Services to achieve interoperability after all systems have achieved full COE compliance. Budget and schedule constraints will force that condition well into the future. Therefore, we must take interim steps to ensure sufficient interoperability is available before all systems can achieve full COE compliance.
In addition to its COE compliance activities, the ASAS program has implemented a number of proactive, bilateral efforts to determine interoperability requirements and standards needed for interface with other Service and agency systems. The efforts of the ASAS program also include ensuring that the intelligence received and provided is in a format and context appropriate for all receiving combat commanders. In addition to the bilateral efforts, the IF PMO is engaged in joint working group efforts created to address horizontal issues affecting multiple Services. One such group effort was the first ASAS Technical Integration Meeting, held at the Lockheed Martin facility in Denver, Colorado. All of these actions are moving as quickly as budget and charter constraints allow.
It is useful to illustrate an example of the technical issues that arise when we address system interoperability. This particular issue happens to be peculiar to intelligence systems. The de facto database standard for exchange of enemy information is the Modernized Integrated Database (MIDB). The defined standard database for ABCS systems is the ABCS Common Database (ACDB). In some areas, the two databases are incompatible. To ensure that this technical issue is transparent to the combat user, representatives of the ASAS team are working with both MIDB and ACDB technical representatives to develop a solution.
Since the Marine Corps and Army represent the DODs two conventional ground forces, the ASAS program has entered into an agreement to provide an ASAS RWSv3 for the ELB (Extending the Littoral Battlespace) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD). This ACTD will explore ASAS utility for the Marine Corps.
Just as ASAS participates in the CTSF, it also participates in the exercises and interoperability efforts of the Joint Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) Battle Center. This new facility, created under the purview of the U.S. Atlantic Command (LANTCOM), provides an excellent environment for addressing the practical problems of joint interoperability.
To assure a viable process for achieving coalition interoperability, the IF PMO and the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) are working together on a compatible program (the Canadian Electronic Warfare Command and Control Program), and have begun efforts to achieve a cooperative interoperability effort. These efforts, which have been ongoing for nearly two years, are serving as the pilot model for future interoperability efforts with the forces of other allied nations.
This has been an attempt to summarize recent progress on the ASAS program, and its plans for the near future. As with all plans, this one represents a snapshot in time that unforeseen international developments and changes in domestic budget priorities can affect. What should be clear, however, is that ASAS fully expects to continue providing quality products which enhance the effectiveness of soldiers and combat units throughout Americas Army.
The authors wish to thank Mr. Daniel Ellerhorst, Dr. Michael Schwartz, and Mr. James Allison of Lockheed Martin Mission Systems as well as Chief Warrant Officer Two Chester Husk, Mr. John Muccio, and Mr. Russ Marsh from the IF PMO for their detailed comments and sugges- tions.
Lieutenant Colonel (LTC) Greg Fritz is currently the Product Manager, ASAS Software, IF PMO. His previous assignments include Deputy Director, Surveillance and Interceptor Technology, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization; Test Program Manager, Defense Nuclear Agency; S3, 512th U.S. Army Artillery Group, Gunzburg, Germany; Commander, 36th U.S. Army Field Artillery (FA) Detachment, Hemau, Germany; and Fire Support Officer and Firing Battery Executive Officer, 3d Battalion, 319th FA. LTC Fritz is a graduate of the United States Military Academy with a Bachelor of Science degree in General Engineering. He has a Master of Science degree in Acquisition Management from the Florida Institute of Technology, and attended the Advanced Program Management Course at the Defense Systems Management College. Readers can contact him via E-mail at [email protected] belvoir.army.mil and telephonically at (703) 275-8088 or DSN 235-8088.
LTC Mike Montie is currently the Primary Contractors Representative, ASAS Block II program, Lockheed Martin Corporation. He has been an aerospace contractor since 1988, and is a retired Army officer. His military assignments included service as a Divi- sion Chief, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, Department of the Army; Program Manager, Tactical Technology Office, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA); Associ- ate Professor, Mathematics Department, U.S. Military Academy; Physicist, Tactical Nuclear Division, Defense Nuclear Agency; and command and staff assignments in the United States, the Republic of Vietnam, and Europe. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics and a Master of Science degree in Nuclear Engineering from the University of Maryland. Readers can contact him via E-mail at [email protected] pmo.belvoir.army.mil and telephonically at (703) 275-8036 or DSN 235-8036.