Force XXI: USAIC&FH Support to Information Operations

by Captain Mark D. Peasley

When the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Commander, General William W. Hartzog, recently signed the Intel XXI concept, he moved the Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca (USAIC&FH) into a major support role of the Force XXI patterns of operations,1 with the emphasis on the pattern gain information dominance. Information operations (IO) are
continuous military operations within the MIE [military information environment] that enable, enhance, and protect the friendly force's ability to collect, process, and act on infor- mation to achieve an advantage across the full range of military operations. IO include interacting with the Global Information Environment and exploiting or denying an adversary's information and decision capabilities.
When TRADOC gave the Intelligence Center the lead in determining IO implications for the Army, USAIC&FH established the Information Operations Task Force (IOTF) in May 1995. Its mission was to gain insights for concepts and doctrine for IO and command and control (C2) warfare (C2W) at the operational and tactical levels. The IOTF conducted wargames in November 1995. Based on the wargame results, the IOTF provided input to FM 100-6, Information Operations, and to the Information Operations CBRS Assessment with a DTLOMS Focus (IOCADF)2 report, and drafted a corps-level C2W tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) manual. FM 100-6 is the first Army field manual to address information operations. Its purpose is to describe the challenge we face and how the Army should operate in an information-rich battlespace. Responsibility for the C2W TTP recently passed to the Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth, the Army's proponent for IO. There it will aid in implementing IO in the Battle Command Training Program and assist in the drafting of FM 100-6-1, IO TTP.
Intelligence is a critical element of IO. Intelligence supporting friendly operations helps produce a common, current, and relevant picture of the battle- space that reduces uncertainty and shortens commanders' decisionmaking process. Against the adversary, intelligence is vital in developing and executing effective C2W operations, which degrade and distort the enemy's decisionmaking process, while protecting friendly C2.
USAIC&FH's ongoing support to IO includes the rewriting of FM 34-40 and renaming it Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Support to C2W. We are tentatively hosting an IO/C2W planning mobile training team from the Joint C2W Center, and participating in September 1996 general officer symposium on the Department of the Army IO Action/Campaign Plan. Intelligence must help build the framework enabling the commander to use all available information, protect information capabilities, and manage information, as well as to exploit and deny the adversary's ability to do the same.
CPT Peasley is the Special Operations Liaison to Fort Huachuca, currently in the Directorate of Combat Developments. His most recent assignment was with the 1-10th Special Forces Group (Airborne). Readers can contact him at (520) 538-7212, DSN 879-7212 or peasleym@

Opposing Force Field Manual Update

by Major Erin J. Gallogly-Staver

In April 1996, the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) disseminated FM 100-63, Infantry-Based Opposing Force: Organization Guide, which replaced the TRADOC Pamphlet 350-13, Light Opposing Force: Organization Guide. FM 100-63 is the first of the seven field manuals (FMs) in the FM 100-60 series to be published. The series documents a capabilities-based opposing force (OPFOR) in the seven volumes listed in Figure 1.

These manuals describe realistic flexible forces representing a composite of actual worldwide forces with varying capabilities. They constitute a baseline for training or developing U.S. forces, in lieu of a specific threat force, and may be used in all training venues. The capabilities-based OPFOR concept represents a break from past practices in several principal respects.
The FMs in this series are in various states of production and publication. Figure 1 depicts the current publication schedule. Local reproduction of the TRADOC pamphlets is authorized; the Threat Support Directorate (TSD), Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence (ODCSINT), TRADOC, has limited quantities of pamphlets 350-14, -15, -16, and -17. Staff Sergeant Stier at (913) 684-7921 or DSN 552-7921 is the point of contact for the TRADOC pamphlets. To order the FMs, refer to the Spring 1995 edition of the U.S. Army Publications and Printing Command's Publications Bulletin; for additional information contact the Logistics Management Division, (703) 325-6232 or DSN 221-6232.
Major Gallogly-Staver is assigned to TSD at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. She has served with the 4th Psychological Operations Group and Special Operations Command-Korea. She attended the Post-Graduate Intelligence Program and holds a master of arts degree in Economics from North Carolina State University, and a master of science degree in Strategic Intelligence from the Joint Military Intelligence College. Readers can contact her at gallogle@leav-emh1. or DSN 552-7922, Comm: (913) 684-7922.