Victory in Egypt
3ID DISE

by Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth H. Boll, Jr., Major Jeffrey S. Holachek, and Captain Jennifer A. Ellington

There's no doubt about it deployability is the name of the game. We live in a force projection world. And it is not who gets there the fastest with the mostest that counts; today's reality is that you can only deploy a limited amount of intelligence equipment and soldiers. This is especially true during the initial stages of an operation. Based on mission analysis, you must determine the precise mix of capabilities and skills to best get the job done. This is what the Deployable Intelligence Support Element (DISE) concept is all about.
The 3d Infantry Division (ID) (Mechanized (M)) Analysis and Control Element (ACE) recently had the opportunity to exercise the DISE concept during Exercise Bright Star 95. This article details some of the more important lessons we learned during our deployment to Egypt.
FM 34-1, Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations, sets the doctrinal framework for the DISE concept. It is an intentionally broad concept that recognizes the fact that missions in today's post-Cold War world vary dramatically. Each separate mission dictates the specific makeup of a DISE.

Split-Based and Tailorable

Whatever the mission, at the heart of the DISE is the TROJAN Special Purpose Integrated Remote Intelligence Terminal II (TS II). The TS II is a highly reliable intelligence communications satellite system. It provides the forward-deployed tactical commander with impressive capabilities. The system allows him to pull vast quantities of national-level intelligence and provides him connectivity to both non-deployed intelligence assets at the home station and other providers such as a theater Joint Intelligence Center. In other words, the TS II gives the commander the capability to conduct split-based operations.
Being the Army's premiere rapid deployment heavy division, the 3d ID (M) takes the ability to deploy rapidly very seriously. Our division deployment standard operating procedure (SOP) defines a "baseline" DISE that forms the core of the deploying intelligence package. The SOP also lays out the different Force Enhancement Modules (FEMs) that allow the commander to quickly tailor a DISE to meet specific mission requirements. Depending on the mission, the commander can send a diverse array of intelligence assets. In a stability and support operation (SASO) scenario, such as peacekeeping or peace enforcement, the counterintelligence (CI) and human intelligence FEM would be a key capability of the DISE. In a more conventional scenario, the DISE would almost certainly include the Mobile Integrated Tactical Terminal. Again, the mission dictates DISE tailoring. Whatever the mission, it is important to keep the DISE as small as possible for it to deploy quickly. During Bright Star, we deployed only the Division's baseline DISE.

Bright Star DISE Deployment

The Bright Star 95 scenario allowed us to replicate deployment of the DISE during the initial entry and lodgment phases of force projection operations. We transported the DISE via a C-141 Starlifter. This was the first time that the 3d ID (M) DISE was air-deployed. We required some additional training to ensure that our deployment went smoothly specifically, hazardous material (HAZMAT) and airload training. It is also a good idea to conduct an airload dry run in advance of deployment and to maintain this skill and ensure efficient deployment.
To be ready for short-notice deployments, advance coordination with the installation transportation office (ITO) is critical. The Fort Stewart ITO and the 3d ID (M) Division Transportation Officer (DTO) were very helpful with all of the details that go into movement planning. All the DISE vehicles, generators, and trailers must be weighed and measured in accordance with airload planning regulations. You must then calculate the centers of balance and mark each piece of equipment appropriately. Your unit movement officer can then create a specific airload plan for the DISE, along with an Automated Unit Equipment List and Deployable Equipment List. The 3d ID (M) DTO maintains these documents, and the ACE keeps a copy for the DISE SOP. This advance planning will allow you to conduct airload operations quickly to meet deployment timelines (the 3d ID (M) DISE can deploy in only 18 hours).

TS II Communications

The Army fielded the TS II at the 3d ID (M) in June 1995. With our Bright Star deployment only two months away, we were concerned whether we would have sufficient time to train our crew and configure our system before deployment. Although we had some initial new technology anxiety, the TROJAN SPIRIT II proved to be a relatively easy system to master.
The SPIRIT is a highly capable and reliable system. It can receive up to 512 kilobits (kb) of satellite bandwidth, divided into as many as 14 separate circuits (8 sensitive compartmented information (SCI) and 6 collateral). Two shelters house the system. They are the primary high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) system (PHS) and the spare equipment module (SEM), on M1097 Heavy HMMWVs. It also includes a specially designed satellite antenna trailer, the Mobile Antenna Platform. The system can operate in the Ku or C satellite bands, in the Continental United States (CONUS) and outside CONUS (OCONUS) respectively. At echelons above corps, the system also includes an X-band antenna. Housed in the shelters are two SunSPARC 10 workstations (SCI), a 486 notebook computer (collateral), two TROJAN system phones (one SCI, one collateral), and two TROJAN facsimile machines (again, one SCI, one collateral). The TS II also comes with an International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) telephone, and four LST-5C ultrahigh-frequency satellite communications radios.
However, it is essential that some modifications be made to the system to allow users to take full advantage of its capabilities, especially in a joint environment. Our SPIRIT came with All-Source Analysis System remote workstation Warrior software already installed on the workstation in the PHS. We the installed Joint Deployment Intelligence Support System (JDISS) software on the workstation in the SEM to allow the system to communicate with joint intelligence agencies. (JDISS is the joint intelligence standard.) Also, to use the INTELINK on-line system, the terminals must have MOSAIC or NETSCAPE software. We also expanded the TROJAN SPIRIT local area network (LAN) adding additional terminals. See Figure 3 for the configuration we used during Bright Star.
Additionally, to operate OCONUS, you must convert the system from Ku- to C-band satellite reception. The DISE's 33T IEW maintenance technician can perform this conversion, which takes about two hours when mastered. We recommend having contractor assistance the first time you attempt the conversion, to talk your 33T through any trouble spots. We also recommend that you conduct a C-band test prior to deployment, if time permits. The TROJAN Switch at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, can assist in coordinating the test.
When we initially hit the ground in Egypt, we experienced some coordination problems with the TROJAN switch at Fort Belvoir. Expect some challenges getting the circuit established. To resolve any problems, you will need a means of communicating with the TROJAN switch. The INMARSAT telephone fielded with the TS II will prove an essential piece of equipment.. The INMARSAT has a satellite telephone that allows you to communicate via commercial satellite anywhere in the world. INMARSAT requires at least three months to activate so we suggest you start coordinating as soon as possible for its commissioning.
During our deployment, we experimented with dynamic routing, which allowed us to have two pathways into the DISE's SCI LAN. In addition to the TROJAN SPIRIT's satellite antenna, we established a redundant pathway via a 32-kb line from the theater intelligence architecture of the U.S. Army Forces Central Command (ARCENT). We put an additional router on our LAN, and connected it to the ARCENT 32-kb line. This provided us with a backup communications link should we have problems with the TROJAN Wide Area Network (WAN).

Conclusion

The first actual deployment of the 3d ID (M) DICE was a success. We validated the DISE concept while practicing the tenets of split-based operations and broadcast dissemination. Despite some initial coordination problems with the TROJAN switch, the TROJAN SPIRIT II proved a highly reliable and capable system. The 3d ID (M) DISE gives our commanding general the capability to provide his force projection commander an intelligence umbilical cord to both national- and theater-level intelligence, as well as to division- and corps-level resources in sanctuary or at our home station. This is a revolutionary advance in division-level MI capabilities.
Lieutenant Colonel Boll is currently the 3d ID (M) G2, at Fort Stewart, Georgia. Among his previous assignments are command of the 103d MI Battalion, 3d ID (M), and Chief, Counternarcotics Analysis Division, J2 U.S. Southern Command during Operation JUST CAUSE. He has a bachelor of arts degree in History from the University of Texas, El Paso, and a Master of Science in Strategic Intelligence from the Defense Intelligence College. Readers can reach him at (912) 767-2202, DSN 870-2202, and via E-mail at [email protected]
Major Holachek currently serves as the 103d MI Battalion S3. His previous assignments include Chief, 103d MI Battalion ACE , and Commander, U.S. Army Special Security Detachment, Fort Meade, Maryland. Major Holachek is a graduate of Xavier University and the Command and General Staff College, and holds advanced degrees from Johns Hopkins University and Columbia University. Readers can reach him at (912) 767-8755, DSN 870-8755, and through E-mail at [email protected]
Captain Ellington is currently the SSO, 3d ID. Her previous assignments include Chief, Collection Management and Dissemination in the 103d MI Battalion ACE; Battalion S2 in the 199th Infantry Brigade; Executive Officer, B Company, 14th MI Battalion (Tactical Exploitation); and Assistant S3 in the 201st MI Brigade. Captain Ellington served as the DISE Chief during Bright Star 95. She has a bachelor of science degree in Engineering Management from the U.S. Military Academy. Readers can reach her at (912) 767-8335/8336, DSN 870-8335/8336, and E-mail at [email protected]