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The lead agency for international drug policy is the State Department.
The Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
(INL) within the State Department is responsible for the design
and execution of international counter-narcotics policy, and
for coordinating all other U.S. agencies' overseas anti-drug
The INL bureau funds and manages the International Narcotics
Control (INC) program, through which the State Department provides
aid and training to the governments and security forces of countries
in which drugs are produced or transported.
According to its 1999 Congressional Presentation, the INC program
has the following strategic objectives:
1.Reduce drug crop cultivation through
a combination of eradication and alternative development programs;
2.Strengthen the ability of law enforcement and judicial institutions
that investigate and prosecute major drug trafficking organizations,
seize and block their assets; and
3.Improve the capacity of host nation police and military forces
to attack narcotics production and trafficking centers.
The INC program combines economic and security
assistance, aiding civilian and military agencies with counter-narcotics
responsibilities. Types of assistance include (but are not limited
to) training, technical assistance, equipment and arms transfers,
development assistance (particularly to encourage cultivation
of legal crops), and aid to administration of justice and domestic
drug demand-reduction programs. State Department INL officials
themselves may manage assistance programs, or INC funds may be
transferred to other government agencies.
The "end use" of counter-narcotics aid is a common
concern of observers both within and outside the U.S. government.
Without sufficient oversight, U.S.-supplied equipment or training
can be misused for purposes unrelated to narcotics, including
the abuse of human rights.
The General Accounting Office (GAO) reported in February 1998
monitoring continues to be problematic:
The Departments of State and Defense were
not coordinating their efforts with each other and did not have
complete oversight over U.S. counter-narcotics programs because
they had not developed an adequate end-use monitoring system
to ensure that U.S.-provided counter-narcotics assistance was
being used as intended.
Law Enforcement Training pays for training
programs carried out by the DEA, Customs Service, and Coast Guard.
The 1999 Congressional Presentation for the State Department's
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
(INL) lists three objectives for the INC Narcotics Law Enforcement
1) Contribute to the basic infrastructure
for carrying out counter-narcotics law enforcement activities
in cooperating countries;
2) Improve technical and investigative skills of anti-drug law
enforcement personnel in key narcotics countries; and
3) Increase cooperation and coordination between U.S. and foreign
law enforcement officials.
INC-funded training is carried out by the
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA, within the Justice Department),
U.S. Customs Service (within the Treasury Department), and U.S.
Coast Guard (within the Transportation Department -- and the
Defense Department when the U.S. is at war). Since 1971, the
INC program has transferred about $109 million to these three
agencies, training 61,600 foreign anti-narcotics officials worldwide.
The program trained 6,739 participants worldwide in 1996, growing
to 8,250 in 1997. This total includes individuals trained by
the DEA using funds from the Department of Justice's Asset Forfeiture
INC-funded law enforcement training seeks
to improve counter-narcotics capabilities in recipient countries
and to increase contact between U.S. and recipient-country personnel.
Courses are generally tailored to "senior-level management
and policy-level officials, while programs offered overseas are
normally for operational personnel." Most recipient-country
agencies are civilian; very few military personnel are trained
through this program.
Training focuses on subjects such as money laundering, chemical
controls, judicial programs and drug awareness. A key emphasis
is on the strengthening of host-country institutions in order
to make them self-sufficient, as the notes the 1999 Congressional
Basic instruction programs were provided
[in 1998] only in countries having limited experience with anti-narcotics
activities. Most of the training scheduled was in more sophisticated
areas, such as executive and management development, asset forfeiture
and financial investigations, use of special enforcement teams,
counter-narcotics security measures and instructional techniques.
Only countries considered to be "high
priority for U.S. anti-narcotics interests" receive training
through the narcotics law enforcement program. Through diplomatic
channels, INL "will coordinate with other providers of training,
and urge them to shoulder greater responsibility in providing
training which serves their particular strategic interests."
Law Enforcement Training Budget
(In Thousands U.S. Dollars)
FY 96 Actual
FY 97 Actual
FY 98 Estimate
FY 99 Request
FY 00 Request
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